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Applications of Chemical Shift Imaging to Marine Sciences
Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering NC State University and UNC Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Environmental Medicine Consortium, NC State University, 4700 Hillsborough St., Raleigh, NC 27606 USA
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 4700 Hillsborough St., Raleigh, NC, 27606, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2010; in revised form: 21 July 2010 / Accepted: 13 August 2010 / Published: 19 August 2010
Abstract: The successful applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medicine are mostly due to the non-invasive and non-destructive nature of MRI techniques. Longitudinal studies of humans and animals are easily accomplished, taking advantage of the fact that MRI does not use harmful radiation that would be needed for plain film radiographic, computerized tomography (CT) or positron emission (PET) scans. Routine anatomic and functional studies using the strong signal from the most abundant magnetic nucleus, the proton, can also provide metabolic information when combined with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS can be performed using either protons or hetero-nuclei (meaning any magnetic nuclei other than protons or 1H) including carbon (13C) or phosphorus (31P). In vivo MR spectra can be obtained from single region ofinterest (ROI or voxel) or multiple ROIs simultaneously using the technique typically called chemical shift imaging (CSI). Here we report applications of CSI to marine samples and describe a technique to study in vivo glycine metabolism in oysters using 13C MRS 12 h after immersion in a sea water chamber dosed with [2-13C]-glycine. This is the first report of 13C CSI in a marine organism.
Keywords: oyster; Crassostrea virginica; magnetic resonance imaging; chemical shift imaging; carbon; glycine; betaine
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MDPI and ACS Style
Lee, H.; Tikunov, A.; Stoskopf, M.K.; Macdonald, J.M. Applications of Chemical Shift Imaging to Marine Sciences. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 2369-2383.
Lee H, Tikunov A, Stoskopf MK, Macdonald JM. Applications of Chemical Shift Imaging to Marine Sciences. Marine Drugs. 2010; 8(8):2369-2383.
Lee, Haakil; Tikunov, Andrey; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M. 2010. "Applications of Chemical Shift Imaging to Marine Sciences." Mar. Drugs 8, no. 8: 2369-2383.