Next Article in Journal
Distribution and Abundance of MAAs in 33 Species of Microalgae across 13 Classes
Next Article in Special Issue
On the Chemistry, Toxicology and Genetics of the Cyanobacterial Toxins, Microcystin, Nodularin, Saxitoxin and Cylindrospermopsin
Previous Article in Journal
Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae
Previous Article in Special Issue
Prymnesins: Toxic Metabolites of the Golden Alga, Prymnesium parvum Carter (Haptophyta)
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(4), 1263-1272; doi:10.3390/md8041263

Investigation of Pectenotoxin Profiles in the Yellow Sea (China) Using a Passive Sampling Technique

1,2,* , 1, 3, 1 and 1
1 Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, No.106 Nanjing Road, 266071 Qingdao, China 2 Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.B. 8156, 0033 Oslo, Norway 3 College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, 200090, Shanghai, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 February 2010 / Revised: 16 March 2010 / Accepted: 7 April 2010 / Published: 15 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [309 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |   Browse Figures


Pectenotoxins (PTXs) are a group of lipophilic algal toxins. These toxins have been found in algae and shellfish from Japan, New Zealand, Ireland, Norway and Portugal. PTX profiles vary with geographic location of collection site. The aim of the present study was to investigate PTX profiles from the Yellow Sea, China. The sampling location was within an aquatic farm (N36°12.428´, E120°17.826´) near the coast of Qingdao, China, in the Yellow Sea from 28July to 29August 2006. PTXs in seawater were determined using a solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) method. PTXs were analyzed by HPLC-MSMS. PTX-2, PTX-2 sec acid (PTX-2 SA) and 7-epi-PTX-2 SA were found in seawater samples. The highest levels of PTXs (107 ng/g of resin PTX-2, 50 ng/g of resin PTX-2 SA plus 7-epi-PTX-2 SA) in seawater were found on 1 August, 2006. From 1 August to 29 August, the levels of PTX-2 and PTX-2 SA decreased. In the same area, the marine algae, Dinophysis acuminata was found in the seawater in the summer months of 2006. This indicated that Dinophysis acuumuta might be the original source of PTXs. PTX-11 and PTX-12a/b were not found in seawater.
Keywords: pectenotoxin; mussel; mytilus edulis; LC-MSMS; SPATT; passive sampling pectenotoxin; mussel; mytilus edulis; LC-MSMS; SPATT; passive sampling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Z.; Mengmeng, G.; Shouguo, Y.; Qingyin, W.; Zhijun, T. Investigation of Pectenotoxin Profiles in the Yellow Sea (China) Using a Passive Sampling Technique. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 1263-1272.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert