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Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(4), 1263-1272; doi:10.3390/md8041263
Article

Investigation of Pectenotoxin Profiles in the Yellow Sea (China) Using a Passive Sampling Technique

1,2,* , 1, 3, 1 and 1
Received: 21 February 2010; in revised form: 16 March 2010 / Accepted: 7 April 2010 / Published: 15 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins)
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Abstract: Pectenotoxins (PTXs) are a group of lipophilic algal toxins. These toxins have been found in algae and shellfish from Japan, New Zealand, Ireland, Norway and Portugal. PTX profiles vary with geographic location of collection site. The aim of the present study was to investigate PTX profiles from the Yellow Sea, China. The sampling location was within an aquatic farm (N36°12.428´, E120°17.826´) near the coast of Qingdao, China, in the Yellow Sea from 28July to 29August 2006. PTXs in seawater were determined using a solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) method. PTXs were analyzed by HPLC-MSMS. PTX-2, PTX-2 sec acid (PTX-2 SA) and 7-epi-PTX-2 SA were found in seawater samples. The highest levels of PTXs (107 ng/g of resin PTX-2, 50 ng/g of resin PTX-2 SA plus 7-epi-PTX-2 SA) in seawater were found on 1 August, 2006. From 1 August to 29 August, the levels of PTX-2 and PTX-2 SA decreased. In the same area, the marine algae, Dinophysis acuminata was found in the seawater in the summer months of 2006. This indicated that Dinophysis acuumuta might be the original source of PTXs. PTX-11 and PTX-12a/b were not found in seawater.
Keywords: pectenotoxin; mussel; mytilus edulis; LC-MSMS; SPATT; passive sampling pectenotoxin; mussel; mytilus edulis; LC-MSMS; SPATT; passive sampling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Z.; Mengmeng, G.; Shouguo, Y.; Qingyin, W.; Zhijun, T. Investigation of Pectenotoxin Profiles in the Yellow Sea (China) Using a Passive Sampling Technique. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 1263-1272.

AMA Style

Li Z, Mengmeng G, Shouguo Y, Qingyin W, Zhijun T. Investigation of Pectenotoxin Profiles in the Yellow Sea (China) Using a Passive Sampling Technique. Marine Drugs. 2010; 8(4):1263-1272.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Zhaoxin; Mengmeng, Guo; Shouguo, Yang; Qingyin, Wang; Zhijun, Tan. 2010. "Investigation of Pectenotoxin Profiles in the Yellow Sea (China) Using a Passive Sampling Technique." Mar. Drugs 8, no. 4: 1263-1272.


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