Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(4), 1213-1262; doi:10.3390/md8041213
Review

Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae

1 Scottish Oceans Institute, formerly the Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 8LB, Scotland, UK 2 Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9ST, Scotland, UK 3 Centre for Marine Biodiversity and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, Scotland, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2010; in revised form: 2 April 2010 / Accepted: 12 April 2010 / Published: 14 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-infective Agents)
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Abstract: All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae.
Keywords: amphipathicity; antimicrobial peptides; fatty acids; innate defence; pigments

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MDPI and ACS Style

Smith, V.J.; Desbois, A.P.; Dyrynda, E.A. Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 1213-1262.

AMA Style

Smith VJ, Desbois AP, Dyrynda EA. Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae. Marine Drugs. 2010; 8(4):1213-1262.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smith, Valerie J.; Desbois, Andrew P.; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A. 2010. "Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae." Mar. Drugs 8, no. 4: 1213-1262.

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