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Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(1), 122-172; doi:10.3390/md80100122

Calyculins and Related Marine Natural Products as Serine- Threonine Protein Phosphatase PP1 and PP2A Inhibitors and Total Syntheses of Calyculin A, B, and C

Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT, Finland
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Received: 21 December 2009 / Revised: 12 January 2010 / Accepted: 13 January 2010 / Published: 21 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis around Marine Natural Products)

Abstract

Calyculins, highly cytotoxic polyketides, originally isolated from the marine sponge Discodermia calyx by Fusetani and co-workers, belong to the lithistid sponges group. These molecules have become interesting targets for cell biologists and synthetic organic chemists. The serine/threonine protein phosphatases play an essential role in the cellular signalling, metabolism, and cell cycle control. Calyculins express potent protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitory activity, and have therefore become valuable tools for cellular biologists studying intracellular processes and their control by reversible phosphorylation. Calyculins might also play an important role in the development of several diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and type 2-diabetes mellitus. The fascinating structures of calyculins have inspired various groups of synthetic organic chemists to develop total syntheses of the most abundant calyculins A and C. However, with fifteen chiral centres, a cyano-capped tetraene unit, a phosphate-bearing spiroketal, an anti, anti, anti dipropionate segment, an α-chiral oxazole, and a trihydroxylated γ-amino acid, calyculins reach versatility that only few natural products can surpass, and truly challenge modern chemists’ asymmetric synthesis skills.
Keywords: marine natural products; total synthesis; protein phosphatase inhibitors marine natural products; total synthesis; protein phosphatase inhibitors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fagerholm, A.E.; Habrant, D.; Koskinen, A.M.P. Calyculins and Related Marine Natural Products as Serine- Threonine Protein Phosphatase PP1 and PP2A Inhibitors and Total Syntheses of Calyculin A, B, and C. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 122-172.

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