Mar. Drugs 2008, 6(2), 103-116; doi:10.3390/md6020103
Article

Characterization of Intracellular and Extracellular Saxitoxin Levels in Both Field and Cultured Alexandrium spp. Samples from Sequim Bay, Washington

1 NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Marine Biotoxins Program, 2725 Montlake Blvd. East, Seattle, WA, 98112, USA 2 Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe, 1033 Old Blyn Highway, Sequim, WA, 98382, USA 3 IPIMAR, National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research, Av. Brasília, 1449-006 Lisbon, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 February 2008; in revised form: 16 April 2008 / Accepted: 18 April 2008 / Published: 14 May 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins)
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Abstract: Traditionally, harmful algal bloom studies have primarily focused on quantifying toxin levels contained within the phytoplankton cells of interest. In the case of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs), intracellular toxin levels and the effects of dietary consumption of toxic cells by planktivores have been well documented. However, little information is available regarding the levels of extracellular PSTs that may leak or be released into seawater from toxic cells during blooms. In order to fully evaluate the risks of harmful algal bloom toxins in the marine food web, it is necessary to understand all potential routes of exposure. In the present study, extracellular and intracellular PST levels were measured in field seawater samples (collected weekly from June to October 2004- 2007) and in Alexandrium spp. culture samples isolated from Sequim Bay, Washington. Measurable levels of intra- and extra-cellular toxins were detected in both field and culture samples via receptor binding assay (RBA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Characterization of the PST toxin profile in the Sequim Bay isolates by preMar. column oxidation and HPLC-fluorescence detection revealed that gonyautoxin 1 and 4 made up 65 ± 9.7 % of the total PSTs present. Collectively, these data confirm that extracellular PSTs are present during blooms of Alexandrium spp. in the Sequim Bay region.
Keywords: PSP; PSTs; harmful algal blooms; saxitoxin; Alexandrium spp.; extracellular toxins; intracellular toxins; HAB

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lefebvre, K.A.; Bill, B.D.; Erickson, A.; Baugh, K.A.; O’Rourke, L.; Costa, P.R.; Nance, S.; Trainer, V.L. Characterization of Intracellular and Extracellular Saxitoxin Levels in Both Field and Cultured Alexandrium spp. Samples from Sequim Bay, Washington. Mar. Drugs 2008, 6, 103-116.

AMA Style

Lefebvre KA, Bill BD, Erickson A, Baugh KA, O’Rourke L, Costa PR, Nance S, Trainer VL. Characterization of Intracellular and Extracellular Saxitoxin Levels in Both Field and Cultured Alexandrium spp. Samples from Sequim Bay, Washington. Marine Drugs. 2008; 6(2):103-116.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lefebvre, Kathi A.; Bill, Brian D.; Erickson, Aleta; Baugh, Keri A.; O’Rourke, Lohna; Costa, Pedro R.; Nance, Shelly; Trainer, Vera L. 2008. "Characterization of Intracellular and Extracellular Saxitoxin Levels in Both Field and Cultured Alexandrium spp. Samples from Sequim Bay, Washington." Mar. Drugs 6, no. 2: 103-116.

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