Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Production of the Neurotoxin BMAA by a Marine Cyanobacterium
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Mechanisms of Toxicity of 3-Alkylpyridinium Polymers from Marine Sponge Reniera sarai
Mar. Drugs 2007, 5(4), 168-179; doi:10.3390/md504168

Report on the First Detection of Pectenotoxin-2, Spirolide-A and Their Derivatives in French Shellfish

1,* , 1
1 IFREMER, Microbiology and Phycotoxins Department, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes, France 2 IFREMER, station d’Arcachon, Quai du Cdt Silhouette, 33120, Arcachon, France 3 IFREMER, station de Sète, Avenue Jean Monnet, BP 171, 34203, Sète, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2007 / Accepted: 21 November 2007 / Published: 23 November 2007
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [145 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |  


In the context of the French Phytoplankton and Phycotoxins MonitoringNetwork (REPHY) programme, shellfish samples were harvested from different locationswhere harmful algae blooms were known to have occurred. For all shellfish samples foundpositive by the mouse bioassay for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins, liquidchromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) was used to search for thefollowing lipophilic toxins: okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxins (DTXs), pectenotoxins(PTXs), azaspiracids (AZAs), yessotoxins (YTXs), spirolides (SPXs) and gymnodimines(GYMs). In order to investigate the presence of acyl-OAs and/or acyl-DTX-1,-2 (DTX-3),alkaline hydrolysis was performed on all samples, and LC/MS analyses were carried out onthe samples before and after hydrolysis. The results revealed different lipophilic toxinprofiles as a function of the shellfish sampling location. The primary finding was that all ofthe samples contained OA and acyl-OA. In addition, other lipophilic toxins were found inshellfish samples: DTX-2, acyl-DTX-2 and SPXs (SPX-A, SPX-desMeC) on the Atlanticcoast (Southern Brittany, Arcachon), and pectenotoxins (PTX-2, PTX-2-seco-acid and 7-epi-PTX-2-seco-acid) on the Mediterranean coast (Thau lagoon, the island of Corsica).This paper reports on the first detection of PTX-2, SPX-A and their derivatives in Frenchshellfish.
Keywords: DSP toxins; spirolides; pectenotoxins; LC/MS analysis DSP toxins; spirolides; pectenotoxins; LC/MS analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Amzil, Z.; Sibat, M.; Royer, F.; Masson, N.; Abadie, E. Report on the First Detection of Pectenotoxin-2, Spirolide-A and Their Derivatives in French Shellfish. Mar. Drugs 2007, 5, 168-179.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert