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Mar. Drugs 2004, 2(1), 39-54; doi:10.3390/md201039

Bioactive Alkaloids from the Sea: A Review

Department of Material Science, Integrated Center for Science, Ehime University, Bunkyou-chou 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan
Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 October 2003 / Accepted: 31 January 2004 / Published: 25 February 2004
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In our ongoing search for bioactive substances from marine organisms, novel alkaloids have been isolated. Pinnatoxins and pinnamine, potent shellfish poisons, were purified from the Okinawan bivalve Pinna muricata. Pinnatoxins activate Ca2+ channels. Halichlorine was isolated from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai. This compound inhibits the induction of VCAM-1. Drugs that block VCAM-1 may be useful for treating coronary artery diseases, angina, and noncardiovascular inflammatory diseases. Pinnaic acids, which are cPLA2 inhibitors, were also obtained from P. muricata. Interestingly, the structures of pinnaic acids are closely related to that of halichlorine. Norzoanthamine hydrochloride, isolated from the colonial zoanthid Zoanthus sp., suppresses decreases in bone weight and strength in ovariectomized mice, and could be a good candidate for an osteoporotic drug. Ircinamine, purified from the marine sponge Ircinia sp., has a reactive thioester. Aburatubolactams, inhibitors of superoxide anion generation, were isolated from Streptomyces sp. This article covers the bioactive marine alkaloids that have been recently isolated by this research group.
Keywords: Ca2+ channel; VCAM-1; cPLA2; anti-Osteoporosis; Superoxide anion Ca2+ channel; VCAM-1; cPLA2; anti-Osteoporosis; Superoxide anion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuramoto, M.; Arimoto, H.; Uemura, D. Bioactive Alkaloids from the Sea: A Review. Mar. Drugs 2004, 2, 39-54.

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