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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(9), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16090322

Biogenic Polyphosphate Nanoparticles from a Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002: Production, Characterization, and Anti-Inflammatory Properties In Vitro

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, 5 Yushan Road, Qingdao 266003, Shandong Province, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract

Probiotic-derived polyphosphates have attracted interest as potential therapeutic agents to improve intestinal health. The current study discovered the intracellular accumulation of polyphosphates in a marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 as nano-sized granules. The maximum accumulation of polyphosphates in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was found at the late logarithmic growth phase when the medium contained 0.74 mM of KH2PO4, 11.76 mM of NaNO3, and 30.42 mM of Na2SO4. Biogenic polyphosphate nanoparticles (BPNPs) were obtained intact from the algae cells by hot water extraction, and were purified to remove the organic impurities by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. By using 100 kDa ultrafiltration, BPNPs were fractionated into the larger and smaller populations with diameters ranging between 30–70 nm and 10–30 nm, respectively. 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole fluorescence and orthophosphate production revealed that a minor portion of BPNPs (about 14–18%) were degraded during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. In vitro studies using lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 cells showed that BPNPs inhibited cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression, and the production of proinflammatory mediators, including NO, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β through suppressing the Toll-like receptor 4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Overall, there is promise in the use of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to produce BPNPs, an anti-inflammatory postbiotic. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphosphate nanoparticles; Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002; anti-inflammation; macrophages; Toll-like receptors polyphosphate nanoparticles; Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002; anti-inflammation; macrophages; Toll-like receptors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Feng, G.; Dong, S.; Huang, M.; Zeng, M.; Liu, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Wu, H. Biogenic Polyphosphate Nanoparticles from a Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002: Production, Characterization, and Anti-Inflammatory Properties In Vitro. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 322.

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