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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(9), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16090298

Trichormus variabilis (Cyanobacteria) Biomass: From the Nutraceutical Products to Novel EPS-Cell/Protein Carrier Systems

1
Laboratory of Biology of Algae, Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 3200003 Haifa, Israel
4
CIMER, Center of Regenerative Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, via Montpelier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
These authors contributed equally to the work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Derived Products for Biomedicine)
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Abstract

A native strain of the heterocytous cyanobacterium Trichormus variabilis VRUC 168 was mass cultivated in a low-cost photobioreactor for a combined production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) and Exopolymeric Substances (EPS) from the same cyanobacterial biomass. A sequential extraction protocol was optimized leading to high yields of Released EPS (REPS) and PUFA, useful for nutraceutical products and biomaterials. REPS were extracted and characterized by chemical staining, Reversed Phase-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and other spectroscopic techniques. Due to their gelation property, REPS were used to produce a photo-polymerizable hybrid hydrogel (REPS-Hy) with addition of polyethylene glycol diacrylated (PEGDa). REPS-Hy was stable over time and resistant to dehydration and spontaneous hydrolysis. The rheological and functional properties of REPS-Hy were studied. The enzyme carrier ability of REPS-Hy was assessed using the detoxification enzyme thiosulfate:cyanide sulfur transferase (TST), suggesting the possibility to use REPS-Hy as an enzymatic hydrogel system. Finally, REPS-Hy was used as a scaffold for culturing human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The cell seeding onto the REPS-Hy and the cell embedding into 3D-REPS-Hy demonstrated a scaffolding property of REPS-Hy with non-cytotoxic effect, suggesting potential applications of cyanobacteria REPS for producing enzyme- and cell-carrier systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: Extracellular Polymeric Substances; hydrogel; mesenchymal stem cells; biomaterials; enzyme; omega 3; PUFA; Trichormus variabilis; Cyanobacteria Extracellular Polymeric Substances; hydrogel; mesenchymal stem cells; biomaterials; enzyme; omega 3; PUFA; Trichormus variabilis; Cyanobacteria
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bellini, E.; Ciocci, M.; Savio, S.; Antonaroli, S.; Seliktar, D.; Melino, S.; Congestri, R. Trichormus variabilis (Cyanobacteria) Biomass: From the Nutraceutical Products to Novel EPS-Cell/Protein Carrier Systems. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 298.

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