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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(6), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16060180

A Marine Isolate of Bacillus pumilus Secretes a Pumilacidin Active against Staphylococcus aureus

1
Department of Biology, Federico II University of Naples, 80126 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Chemical Sciences, Federico II University of Naples, 80126 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sources)
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Abstract

Producing antimicrobials is a common adaptive behavior shared by many microorganisms, including marine bacteria. We report that SF214, a marine-isolated strain of Bacillus pumilus, produces at least two different molecules with antibacterial activity: a molecule smaller than 3 kDa active against Staphylococcus aureus and a molecule larger than 10 kDa active against Listeria monocytogenes. We focused our attention on the anti-Staphylococcus molecule and found that it was active at a wide range of pH conditions and that its secretion was dependent on the growth phase, medium, and temperature. A mass spectrometry analysis of the size-fractionated supernatant of SF214 identified the small anti-Staphylococcus molecule as a pumilacidin, a nonribosomally synthesized biosurfactant composed of a mixture of cyclic heptapeptides linked to fatty acids of variable length. The analysis of the SF214 genome revealed the presence of a gene cluster similar to the srfA-sfp locus encoding the multimodular, nonribosomal peptide synthases found in other surfactant-producing bacilli. However, the srfA-sfp cluster of SF214 differed from that present in other surfactant-producing strains of B. pumilus by the presence of an insertion element previously found only in strains of B. safensis. View Full-Text
Keywords: SF214; B. pumilus; antimicrobials; lipopeptides; surfactants; surfactin; pumilacidin SF214; B. pumilus; antimicrobials; lipopeptides; surfactants; surfactin; pumilacidin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Saggese, A.; Culurciello, R.; Casillo, A.; Corsaro, M.M.; Ricca, E.; Baccigalupi, L. A Marine Isolate of Bacillus pumilus Secretes a Pumilacidin Active against Staphylococcus aureus. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 180.

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