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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16050142

Marine and Freshwater Feedstocks as a Precursor for Nitrogen-Containing Carbons: A Review

1
Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Torun, Poland
2
Centre for Modern Interdisciplinary Technologies, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Wilenska 4, 87-100 Torun, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biomimetics)
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Abstract

Marine-derived as well as freshwater feedstock offers important benefits, such as abundance, morphological and structural variety, and the presence of multiple elements, including nitrogen and carbon. Therefore, these renewal resources may be useful for obtaining N- and C-containing materials that can be manufactured by various methods, such as pyrolysis and hydrothermal processes supported by means of chemical and physical activators. However, every synthesis concept relies on an efficient transfer of nitrogen and carbon from marine/freshwater feedstock to the final product. This paper reviews the advantages of marine feedstock over synthetic and natural but non-marine resources as precursors for the manufacturing of N-doped activated carbons. The manufacturing procedure influences some crucial properties of nitrogen-doped carbon materials, such as pore structure and the chemical composition of the surface. An extensive review is given on the relationship between carbon materials manufacturing from marine feedstock and the elemental content of nitrogen, together with a description of the chemical bonding of nitrogen atoms at the surface. N-doped carbons may serve as effective adsorbents for the removal of pollutants from the gas or liquid phase. Non-recognized areas of adsorption-based applications for nitrogen-doped carbons are presented, too. The paper proves that nitrogen-doped carbon materials belong to most of the prospective electrode materials for electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies such as fuel cells, air–metal batteries, and supercapacitors, as well as for bioimaging. The reviewed material belongs to the widely understood field of marine biotechnology in relation to marine natural products. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine feedstock processing; marine-derived products; nitrogen-doped carbon; marine animals; marine plants marine feedstock processing; marine-derived products; nitrogen-doped carbon; marine animals; marine plants
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Ilnicka, A.; Lukaszewicz, J.P. Marine and Freshwater Feedstocks as a Precursor for Nitrogen-Containing Carbons: A Review. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 142.

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