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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16030084

New Crambescidin-Type Alkaloids from the Indonesian Marine Sponge Clathria bulbotoxa

1
Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
2
Faculty of Marine Science and Fishery, Hasanuddin University, Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan KM. 10, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
3
Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
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Abstract

A crude methanolic extract of the Indonesian sponge Clathria bulbotoxa showed a potent cytotoxic activity against the human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. An investigation of the active components led to the isolation of three new compounds named crambescidins 345 (1), 361 (2), and 373 (3), together with the known related metabolites crambescidins 359 (4), 657 (5), and 800 (6). The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. These compounds 14 that possess a simple pentacyclic guanidine core exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against the A431 cells with the IC50 values of 7.0, 2.5, 0.94, and 3.1 μM, respectively, while the known compounds 5 and 6 that possess a long aliphatic side chain were found to be significantly cytotoxic. On the other hand, in an anti-oomycete activity test against the fungus-like plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici, 14 showed a higher activity than that of 5 and 6, suggesting that the long aliphatic side chain plays a significant role for cytotoxicity, but is not effective or suppressive for anti-oomycete activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Indonesian sponge; Clathria bulbotoxa; crambescidin; cytotoxicity; anti-oomycete activity Indonesian sponge; Clathria bulbotoxa; crambescidin; cytotoxicity; anti-oomycete activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kasmiati, K.; Yoshioka, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ojika, M. New Crambescidin-Type Alkaloids from the Indonesian Marine Sponge Clathria bulbotoxa. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 84.

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