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Mar. Drugs, Volume 16, Issue 2 (February 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The sea anemone Bunodactis verrucosa inhabits rocky shores of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Tetrocarcin Q, a New Spirotetronate with a Unique Glycosyl Group from a Marine-Derived Actinomycete Micromonospora carbonacea LS276
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020074
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
A new spirotetronate glycoside tetrocarcin Q (1) and six known analogues tetrocarcin A (2), AC6H (3), tetrocarcin N (4), tetrocarcin H (5), arisostatin A (6), and tetrocarcin F1 (7)
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A new spirotetronate glycoside tetrocarcin Q (1) and six known analogues tetrocarcin A (2), AC6H (3), tetrocarcin N (4), tetrocarcin H (5), arisostatin A (6), and tetrocarcin F1 (7) were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived actinomycete Micromonospora carbonacea LS276. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, as well as HR-ESI-MS analysis. The absolute configurations of their stereogenic carbons were determined by circular dichroism (CD) analysis. Compound 1 possesses 2-deoxy-allose, which is a unique sugar type at the C-9 position. This type has not been found in the previously reported spirotetronate glycosides. Compound 1 displayed moderate antibacterial activity against Bacillus subitlis ATCC 63501 with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 12.5 μM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products from Coral Reef Organisms)
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Open AccessArticle Preparative Separation and Purification of Trichothecene Mycotoxins from the Marine Fungus Fusarium sp. LS68 by High-Speed Countercurrent Chromatography in Stepwise Elution Mode
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020073
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
The contamination of foods and animal feeds with trichothecene mycotoxins is a growing concern for human and animal health. As such, large quantities of pure trichothecene mycotoxins are necessary for food safety monitoring and toxicological research. A new and effective method for the
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The contamination of foods and animal feeds with trichothecene mycotoxins is a growing concern for human and animal health. As such, large quantities of pure trichothecene mycotoxins are necessary for food safety monitoring and toxicological research. A new and effective method for the purification of trichothecene mycotoxins from a marine fungus, Fusarium sp. LS68, is described herein. Preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was utilized for the scalable isolation and purification of four trichothecene mycotoxins for the first time in stepwise elution mode, with a biphasic solvent system composed of hexanes–EtOAc–CH3OH–H2O (6:4:5:5, v/v/v/v) and (8.5:1.5:5:5,v/v/v/v). This preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 200 mg of crude sample to yield four trichothecene mycotoxins, roridin E (1), roridin E acetate (2), verrucarin L acetate (3), and verrucarin J (4) in a single run, with each of >98% purity. These compounds were identified by MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and polarimetry. The results demonstrate an efficient HSCCC method for the separation of trichothecene mycotoxins, which can be utilized to produce pure commercial and research standards. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective Tetrodotoxin, a Candidate Drug for Nav1.1-Induced Mechanical Pain?
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020072
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Tetrodotoxin (TTX), the mode of action of which has been known since the 1960s, is widely used in pharmacology as a specific inhibitor of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav channels). This toxin has contributed to the characterization of the allosteric model of the Nav
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Tetrodotoxin (TTX), the mode of action of which has been known since the 1960s, is widely used in pharmacology as a specific inhibitor of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav channels). This toxin has contributed to the characterization of the allosteric model of the Nav channel, and to discriminating TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant subtypes. In addition to its role as a pharmacological tool, TTX is now considered a therapeutic molecule, and its development should lead to its use in certain pathologies involving Nav channels, particularly in the field of pain. Specifically, the blockade of Nav channels expressed in nociceptive fibres is one strategy for alleviating pain and its deleterious consequences on health. Recent work has identified, in addition to the Nav1.7, 1.8 and 1.9 channels, the Nav1.1 subtype on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons as a crucial player in mechanical and non-thermal pain. The sensitivity of Nav1.1 to TTX could be exploited at the therapeutic level, especially in chronic pain conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
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Open AccessCommunication Cladodionen, a Cytotoxic Hybrid Polyketide from the Marine-Derived Cladosporium sp. OUCMDZ-1635
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020071
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
A new hybrid polyketide, cladodionen (1), together with a new abscisic acid analogue, cladosacid (2), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Cladosporium sp. OUCMDZ-1635. Their structures, including the absolute configurations, were fully elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis,
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A new hybrid polyketide, cladodionen (1), together with a new abscisic acid analogue, cladosacid (2), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Cladosporium sp. OUCMDZ-1635. Their structures, including the absolute configurations, were fully elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, ECD spectra, quantum chemical calculations, and chemical methods. Cladodionen (1) showed cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, HeLa, HCT-116, and HL-60 human cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 18.7, 19.1, 17.9, and 9.1 µM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lactomycins A–C, Dephosphorylated Phoslactomycin Derivatives that Inhibit Cathepsin B, from the Marine-derived Streptomyces sp. ACT232
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020070
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
Three new polyketides, lactomycins A (1)–C (3), were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. ACT232 as cathepsin B inhibitors. Their structures were determined by a combination of NMR and MS data analyses to be the dephosphorylated derivatives of a
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Three new polyketides, lactomycins A (1)–C (3), were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. ACT232 as cathepsin B inhibitors. Their structures were determined by a combination of NMR and MS data analyses to be the dephosphorylated derivatives of a phoslactomycin class of metabolites. Lactomycins exhibited cathepsin B inhibitory activity (IC50 0.8 to 4.5 μg/mL). Even though the biosynthetic gene clusters found in the genome of the current strain have high similarity to those of phoslactomycin, neither phoslactomycins nor leustroducsins were detected by LC-MS analyses of the crude extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products from Marine Actinomycetes)
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Open AccessReview Exopolysaccharides from Marine and Marine Extremophilic Bacteria: Structures, Properties, Ecological Roles and Applications
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020069
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
The marine environment is the largest aquatic ecosystem on Earth and it harbours microorganisms responsible for more than 50% of total biomass of prokaryotes in the world. All these microorganisms produce extracellular polymers that constitute a substantial part of the dissolved organic carbon,
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The marine environment is the largest aquatic ecosystem on Earth and it harbours microorganisms responsible for more than 50% of total biomass of prokaryotes in the world. All these microorganisms produce extracellular polymers that constitute a substantial part of the dissolved organic carbon, often in the form of exopolysaccharides (EPS). In addition, the production of these polymers is often correlated to the establishment of the biofilm growth mode, during which they are important matrix components. Their functions include adhesion and colonization of surfaces, protection of the bacterial cells and support for biochemical interactions between the bacteria and the surrounding environment. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the status of the research about the structures of exopolysaccharides from marine bacteria, including capsular, medium released and biofilm embedded polysaccharides. Moreover, ecological roles of these polymers, especially for those isolated from extreme ecological niches (deep-sea hydrothermal vents, polar regions, hypersaline ponds, etc.), are reported. Finally, relationships between the structure and the function of the exopolysaccharides are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle First Report on Chitin in a Non-Verongiid Marine Demosponge: The Mycale euplectellioides Case
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020068
Received: 7 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
Sponges (Porifera) are recognized as aquatic multicellular organisms which developed an effective biochemical pathway over millions of years of evolution to produce both biologically active secondary metabolites and biopolymer-based skeletal structures. Among marine demosponges, only representatives of the Verongiida order are known to
[...] Read more.
Sponges (Porifera) are recognized as aquatic multicellular organisms which developed an effective biochemical pathway over millions of years of evolution to produce both biologically active secondary metabolites and biopolymer-based skeletal structures. Among marine demosponges, only representatives of the Verongiida order are known to synthetize biologically active substances as well as skeletons made of structural polysaccharide chitin. The unique three-dimensional (3D) architecture of such chitinous skeletons opens the widow for their recent applications as adsorbents, as well as scaffolds for tissue engineering and biomimetics. This study has the ambitious goal of monitoring other orders beyond Verongiida demosponges and finding alternative sources of naturally prestructured chitinous scaffolds; especially in those demosponge species which can be cultivated at large scales using marine farming conditions. Special attention has been paid to the demosponge Mycale euplectellioides (Heteroscleromorpha: Poecilosclerida: Mycalidae) collected in the Red Sea. For the first time, we present here a detailed study of the isolation of chitin from the skeleton of this sponge, as well as its identification using diverse bioanalytical tools. Calcofluor white staining, Fourier-transform Infrared Spcetcroscopy (FTIR), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and fluorescence microscopy, as well as a chitinase digestion assay were applied in order to confirm with strong evidence the finding of a-chitin in the skeleton of M. euplectellioides. We suggest that the discovery of chitin within representatives of the Mycale genus is a promising step in their evaluation of these globally distributed sponges as new renewable sources for both biologically active metabolites and chitin, which are of prospective use for pharmacology and biomaterials oriented biomedicine, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin)
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Open AccessArticle Diverse and Abundant Secondary Metabolism Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in the Genomes of Marine Sponge Derived Streptomyces spp. Isolates
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020067
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
The genus Streptomyces produces secondary metabolic compounds that are rich in biological activity. Many of these compounds are genetically encoded by large secondary metabolism biosynthetic gene clusters (smBGCs) such as polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) which are modular and can
[...] Read more.
The genus Streptomyces produces secondary metabolic compounds that are rich in biological activity. Many of these compounds are genetically encoded by large secondary metabolism biosynthetic gene clusters (smBGCs) such as polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) which are modular and can be highly repetitive. Due to the repeats, these gene clusters can be difficult to resolve using short read next generation datasets and are often quite poorly predicted using standard approaches. We have sequenced the genomes of 13 Streptomyces spp. strains isolated from shallow water and deep-sea sponges that display antimicrobial activities against a number of clinically relevant bacterial and yeast species. Draft genomes have been assembled and smBGCs have been identified using the antiSMASH (antibiotics and Secondary Metabolite Analysis Shell) web platform. We have compared the smBGCs amongst strains in the search for novel sequences conferring the potential to produce novel bioactive secondary metabolites. The strains in this study recruit to four distinct clades within the genus Streptomyces. The marine strains host abundant smBGCs which encode polyketides, NRPS, siderophores, bacteriocins and lantipeptides. The deep-sea strains appear to be enriched with gene clusters encoding NRPS. Marine adaptations are evident in the sponge-derived strains which are enriched for genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of compatible solutes and for heat-shock proteins. Streptomyces spp. from marine environments are a promising source of novel bioactive secondary metabolites as the abundance and diversity of smBGCs show high degrees of novelty. Sponge derived Streptomyces spp. isolates appear to display genomic adaptations to marine living when compared to terrestrial strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Gene Clusters of Marine Origin)
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Open AccessArticle Chitin Oligosaccharide Modulates Gut Microbiota and Attenuates High-Fat-Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Mice
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020066
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 19 February 2018
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Abstract
Gut microbiota has been proved to be an indispensable link between nutrient excess and metabolic syndrome, and chitin oligosaccharide (NACOS) has displayed therapeutic effects on multiple diseases such as cancer and gastritis. In this study, we aim to confirm whether NACOS can ameliorate
[...] Read more.
Gut microbiota has been proved to be an indispensable link between nutrient excess and metabolic syndrome, and chitin oligosaccharide (NACOS) has displayed therapeutic effects on multiple diseases such as cancer and gastritis. In this study, we aim to confirm whether NACOS can ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome by rebuilding the structure of the gut microbiota community. Male C57BL/6J mice fed with HFD were treated with NACOS (1 mg/mL) in drinking water for five months. The results indicate that NACOS improved glucose metabolic disorder in HFD-fed mice and suppressed mRNA expression of the protein regulators related to lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation in adipose tissues. Additionally, NACOS inhibited the destruction of the gut barrier in HFD-treated mice. Furthermore, 16S ribosome RNA sequencing of fecal samples demonstrates that NACOS promoted the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria remarkably and decreased the abundance of inflammogenic taxa. In summary, NACOS partly rebuilt the microbial community and improved the metabolic syndrome of HFD-fed mice. These data confirm the preventive effects of NACOS on nutrient excess-related metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Drugs in the Management of Metabolic Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Biosorption: An Interplay between Marine Algae and Potentially Toxic Elements—A Review
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020065
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 19 February 2018
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Abstract
In recent decades, environmental pollution has emerged as a core issue, around the globe, rendering it of fundamental concern to eco-toxicologists, environmental biologists, eco-chemists, pathologists, and researchers from other fields. The dissolution of polluting agents is a leading cause of environmental pollution of
[...] Read more.
In recent decades, environmental pollution has emerged as a core issue, around the globe, rendering it of fundamental concern to eco-toxicologists, environmental biologists, eco-chemists, pathologists, and researchers from other fields. The dissolution of polluting agents is a leading cause of environmental pollution of all key spheres including the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere, among others. The widespread occurrence of various pollutants including toxic heavy metals and other emerging hazardous contaminants is a serious concern. With increasing scientific knowledge, socioeconomic awareness, human health problems, and ecological apprehensions, people are more concerned about adverse health outcomes. Against this background, several removal methods have been proposed and implemented with the aim of addressing environmental pollution and sustainable and eco-friendly development. Among them, the biosorption of pollutants using naturally inspired sources, e.g., marine algae, has considerable advantages. In the past few years, marine algae have been extensively studied due to their natural origin, overall cost-effective ratio, and effectiveness against a broader pollutant range; thus, they are considered a potential alternative to the conventional methods used for environmental decontamination. Herein, an effort has been made to highlight the importance of marine algae as naturally inspired biosorbents and their role in biosorption. Biosorption mechanisms and factors affecting biosorption activities are also discussed in this review. The utilization of marine algae as a biosorbent for the removal of numerous potentially toxic elements has also been reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds Used in Biosorption)
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Open AccessReview The Anti-Cancer Effects of Frondoside A
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020064
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 19 February 2018
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Abstract
Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside from the Atlantic Sea Cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa. Frondoside A has a broad spectrum of anti-cancer effects, including induction of cellular apoptosis, inhibition of cancer cell growth, migration, invasion, formation of metastases, and angiogenesis. In cell lines
[...] Read more.
Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside from the Atlantic Sea Cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa. Frondoside A has a broad spectrum of anti-cancer effects, including induction of cellular apoptosis, inhibition of cancer cell growth, migration, invasion, formation of metastases, and angiogenesis. In cell lines and animal models studied to date, the anti-cancer effects of the compound are seen in all solid cancers, lymphomas, and leukemias studied to date. These effects appear to be due to potent inhibition of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), which is up-regulated in many cancers. In mouse models, frondoside A has synergistic effects with conventional chemotherapeutic agents, such as gemcitabine, paclitaxel, and cisplatin. Frondoside A administration is well-tolerated. No side effects have been reported and the compound has no significant effects on body weight, blood cells, or on hepatic and renal function tests after long-term administration. Frondoside A may be valuable in the treatment of malignancies, either as a single agent or in combination with other therapeutic modalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycosides)
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Open AccessArticle Antiproliferative Activity of Glycosaminoglycan-Like Polysaccharides Derived from Marine Molluscs
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020063
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
Despite the increasing availability of new classes of cancer treatment, such as immune- and targeted therapies, there remains a need for the development of new antiproliferative/cytotoxic drugs with improved pharmacological profiles that can also overcome drug resistant forms of cancer. In this study,
[...] Read more.
Despite the increasing availability of new classes of cancer treatment, such as immune- and targeted therapies, there remains a need for the development of new antiproliferative/cytotoxic drugs with improved pharmacological profiles that can also overcome drug resistant forms of cancer. In this study, we have identified, and characterised, a novel marine polysaccharide with the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent. Sulphated polysaccharides isolated from the common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) were shown to have antiproliferative activity on chronic myelogenous leukaemia and relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines. Disaccharide and monosaccharide analysis of these marine polysaccharides confirmed the presence of glycosaminoglycan-like structures that were enriched in ion-exchange purified fractions containing antiproliferative activity. The antiproliferative activity of these glycosaminoglycan-like marine polysaccharides was shown to be susceptible to heparinase but not chondrotinase ABC digestion. This pattern of enzymatic and antiproliferative activity has not previously been seen, with either marine or mammalian glycosaminoglycans. As such, our findings suggest we have identified a new type of marine derived heparan sulphate/heparin-like polysaccharide with potent anticancer properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Compounds and Cancer) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Study on Asymmetric Reduction of Ketones Using the Growing and Resting Cells of Marine-Derived Fungi
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020062
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 3 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
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Abstract
Whole-cell biocatalysts offer a highly enantioselective, minimally polluting route to optically active alcohols. Currently, most of the whole-cell catalytic performance involves resting cells rather than growing cell biotransformation, which is one-step process that benefits from the simultaneous growth and biotransformation, eliminating the need
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Whole-cell biocatalysts offer a highly enantioselective, minimally polluting route to optically active alcohols. Currently, most of the whole-cell catalytic performance involves resting cells rather than growing cell biotransformation, which is one-step process that benefits from the simultaneous growth and biotransformation, eliminating the need for catalysts preparation. In this paper, asymmetric reduction of 14 aromatic ketones to the corresponding enantiomerically pure alcohols was successfully conducted using the growing and resting cells of marine-derived fungi under optimized conditions. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with both methods. Although substrate inhibition might be a limiting factor for growing cell biotransformation, the selected strain can still completely convert 10-mM substrates into the desired products. The resting cell biotransformation showed a capacity to be recycled nine times without a significant decrease in the activity. This is the first study to perform asymmetric reduction of ketones by one-step growing cell biotransformation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chlorinated Azaphilone Pigments with Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities Isolated from the Deep Sea Derived Fungus Chaetomium sp. NA-S01-R1
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020061
Received: 13 January 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
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Abstract
Four novel compounds, chaephilone C (1), chaetoviridides A–C (24), were obtained from the culture of a deep sea derived fungus Chaetomium sp. NA-S01-R1, together with four known compounds—chaetoviridin A (5), chaetoviridine E (6),
[...] Read more.
Four novel compounds, chaephilone C (1), chaetoviridides A–C (24), were obtained from the culture of a deep sea derived fungus Chaetomium sp. NA-S01-R1, together with four known compounds—chaetoviridin A (5), chaetoviridine E (6), chaetomugilin D (7) and cochliodone A (8). Their structures, including absolute configurations, were assigned based on NMR, MS and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) ECD calculations. A plausible biogenetic pathway for compounds 13 was proposed. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited antibacterial activities against Vibrio rotiferianus and Vibrio vulnificus. Compounds 1, 3 and 4 displayed similar anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (anti-MRSA) activities in comparison to chloramphenicol. Compound 2 showed the most potent cytotoxic activities towards the Hep G2 cell and compounds 1 and 3 demonstrated relatively stronger cytotoxic activities than the other compounds against the HeLa cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Microbes II, 2017)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Bioactivity Assessment of Indian Origin—Mangrove Actinobacteria against Candida albicans
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020060
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
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Abstract
Actinobacteria is found to have a potent metabolic activity against pathogens. The present study reveals the assessment of potent antifungal secondary metabolites from actinobacteria isolated from Indian marine mangrove sediments. The samples were collected from the coastal regions of Muthupet, Andaman and the
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Actinobacteria is found to have a potent metabolic activity against pathogens. The present study reveals the assessment of potent antifungal secondary metabolites from actinobacteria isolated from Indian marine mangrove sediments. The samples were collected from the coastal regions of Muthupet, Andaman and the Nicobar Islands. Identification was carried out using 16S rRNA analysis and biosynthetic genes (Polyketide synthase type I/II and Non-ribosomal peptide synthase) were screened. Actinobacteria were assayed for their antifungal activity against 16 clinical Candida albicans and the compound analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS. The 31 actinobacterial strains were isolated and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that this ecosystem is rich on actinobacteria, with Streptomyces as the predominant genus. The PCR based screening of biosynthetic genes revealed the presence of PKS-I in six strains, PKS-II in four strains and NRPS in 11 strains. The isolated actinobacteria VITGAP240 and VITGAP241 (two isolates) were found to have a potential antifungal activity against all the tested C. albicans. GC-MS results revealed that the actinobacterial compounds were belonging to heterocyclic, polyketides and peptides. Overall, the strains possess a wide spectrum of antifungal properties which affords the production of significant bioactive metabolites as potential antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sources)
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