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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(6), 178; doi:10.3390/md15060178

Chondroitin Sulfate-Rich Extract of Skate Cartilage Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Damage in Mice

1
Department of Food Science and Nutrition and Kimchi Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
2
Yeongsan Skate Co. Ltd., Busan 48531, Korea
3
College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu 42158, Korea
4
Department of Medicinal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Eumseong 55365, Korea
5
Department of Food Science & Nutrition, Tongmyong University, Busan 48520, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract

The protective effects of a chondroitin sulfate-rich extract (CSE) from skate cartilage against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic damage were investigated, and its mechanism of action was compared with that of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from shark cartilage. ICR mice were orally administrated 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CS or 400 mg/kg BW of CSE for 3 consecutive days, followed by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg BW). The experimental groups were vehicle treatment without LPS injection (NC group), vehicle treatment with LPS injection (LPS group), CS pretreatment with LPS injection (CS group), and CSE pretreatment with LPS injection (CSE group). Hepatic antioxidant enzyme expression levels in the CS and CSE groups were increased relative to those in the LPS group. In LPS-insulted hepatic tissue, inflammatory factors were augmented relative to those in the NC group, but were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with CS or CSE. Moreover, CS and CSE alleviated the LPS-induced apoptotic factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In addition, CS and CSE effectively decreased the serum lipid concentrations and downregulated hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins expression. In conclusion, the skate CSE could protect against LPS-induced hepatic dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, probably through the regulation of MAPK signaling. View Full-Text
Keywords: skate cartilage; chondroitin sulfate; inflammation; antioxidant enzyme; apoptosis; MAPK; SREBPs; lipopolysaccharide skate cartilage; chondroitin sulfate; inflammation; antioxidant enzyme; apoptosis; MAPK; SREBPs; lipopolysaccharide
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Song, Y.O.; Kim, M.; Woo, M.; Baek, J.-M.; Kang, K.-H.; Kim, S.-H.; Roh, S.-S.; Park, C.H.; Jeong, K.-S.; Noh, J.-S. Chondroitin Sulfate-Rich Extract of Skate Cartilage Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Damage in Mice. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 178.

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