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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(6), 174; doi:10.3390/md15060174

Effect of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Parameters on the Biological Activities and Metabolites Present in Extracts from Arthrospira platensis

1
Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Campus Monterrey, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey, NL 64849, Mexico
2
Laboratory of Aquatic Biology, KU Leuven Kulak, E. Sabbelaan 53, 8500 Kortrijk, Belgium
3
Tecnologia Ambiental Biomex S.A. de C.V., Volcan Jorullo 5268, Zapopan, Jalisco 45070, Mexico
4
School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637457, Singapore
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vítor Vasconcelos and Keith B. Glaser
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Microbes II, 2017)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1064 KB, uploaded 12 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Arthrospira platensis was used to obtain functional extracts through supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE-CO2). Pressure (P), temperature (T), co-solvent (CX), static extraction (SX), dispersant (Di) and dynamic extraction (DX) were evaluated as process parameters through a Plackett–Burman design. The maximum extract yield obtained was 7.48 ± 0.15% w/w. The maximum contents of bioactive metabolites in extracts were 0.69 ± 0.09 µg/g of riboflavin, 5.49 ± 0.10 µg/g of α-tocopherol, 524.46 ± 0.10 µg/g of β-carotene, 1.44 ± 0.10 µg/g of lutein and 32.11 ± 0.12 mg/g of fatty acids with 39.38% of palmitic acid, 20.63% of linoleic acid and 30.27% of γ-linolenic acid. A. platensis extracts had an antioxidant activity of 76.47 ± 0.71 µg GAE/g by Folin–Ciocalteu assay, 0.52 ± 0.02, 0.40 ± 0.01 and 1.47 ± 0.02 µmol TE/g by DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, respectively. These extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Overall, co-solvent was the most significant factor for all measured effects (p < 0.05). Arthrospira platensis represents a sustainable source of bioactive compounds through SFE using the following extraction parameters P: 450 bar, CX: 11 g/min, SX: 15 min, DX: 25 min, T: 60 °C and Di: 35 g. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; supercritical fluid extraction; antioxidants; antimicrobials; bioactive compounds; nutraceuticals; γ-linolenic acid; α-tocopherol; β-carotene; riboflavin Arthrospira platensis; supercritical fluid extraction; antioxidants; antimicrobials; bioactive compounds; nutraceuticals; γ-linolenic acid; α-tocopherol; β-carotene; riboflavin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Esquivel-Hernández, D.A.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, J.; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, S.P.; García-Pérez, J.S.; Mancera-Andrade, E.I.; Núñez-Echevarría, J.E.; Ontiveros-Valencia, A.; Rostro-Alanis, M.; García-García, R.M.; Torres, J.A.; Chen, W.N.; Parra-Saldívar, R. Effect of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Parameters on the Biological Activities and Metabolites Present in Extracts from Arthrospira platensis. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 174.

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