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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(6), 149; doi:10.3390/md15060149

Characterization of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases in the Basal Dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae

1
Graduate Program in Life Sciences, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
2
Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peer B. Jacobson
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 20 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology II 2016)
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Abstract

Dinoflagellates make up a diverse array of fatty acids and polyketides. A necessary precursor for their synthesis is malonyl-CoA formed by carboxylating acetyl CoA using the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). To date, information on dinoflagellate ACC is limited. Through transcriptome analysis in Amphidinium carterae, we found three full-length homomeric type ACC sequences; no heteromeric type ACC sequences were found. We assigned the putative cellular location for these ACCs based on transit peptide predictions. Using streptavidin Western blotting along with mass spectrometry proteomics, we validated the presence of ACC proteins. Additional bands showing other biotinylated proteins were also observed. Transcript abundance for these ACCs follow the global pattern of expression for dinoflagellate mRNA messages over a diel cycle. This is one of the few descriptions at the transcriptomic and protein level of ACCs in dinoflagellates. This work provides insight into the enzymes which make the CoA precursors needed for fatty acid and toxin synthesis in dinoflagellates. View Full-Text
Keywords: dinoflagellate; acetyl CoA carboxylase; polyketide; fatty acids; Amphidinium carterae; toxin synthesis dinoflagellate; acetyl CoA carboxylase; polyketide; fatty acids; Amphidinium carterae; toxin synthesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Haq, S.; Bachvaroff, T.R.; Place, A.R. Characterization of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases in the Basal Dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 149.

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