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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(4), 89; doi:10.3390/md15040089

An Overview of the Protective Effects of Chitosan and Acetylated Chitosan Oligosaccharides against Neuronal Disorders

1
Institute of Cerebrovascular Diseases, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003, China
2
Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017)
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Abstract

Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer on Earth and is mainly comprised of a marine invertebrate, consisting of repeating β-1,4 linked N-acetylated glucosamine units, whereas its N-deacetylated product, chitosan, has broad medical applications. Interestingly, chitosan oligosaccharides have therapeutic effects on different types of neuronal disorders, including, but not limited to, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and nerve crush injury. A common link among neuronal disorders is observed at a sub-cellular level, such as atypical protein assemblies and induced neuronal death. Chronic activation of innate immune responses that lead to neuronal injury is also common in these diseases. Thus, the common mechanisms of neuronal disorders might explain the general therapeutic effects of chitosan oligosaccharides and their derivatives in these diseases. This review provides an update on the pathogenesis and therapy for neuronal disorders and will be mainly focused on the recent progress made towards the neuroprotective properties of chitosan and acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides. Their structural features and the underlying molecular mechanisms will also be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides; neuronal disorder; neuroprotection; molecular mechanism chitosan; acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides; neuronal disorder; neuroprotection; molecular mechanism
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Hao, C.; Wang, W.; Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Guo, Y. An Overview of the Protective Effects of Chitosan and Acetylated Chitosan Oligosaccharides against Neuronal Disorders. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 89.

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