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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(2), 52; doi:10.3390/md15020052

Metabolic Profiling as a Screening Tool for Cytotoxic Compounds: Identification of 3-Alkyl Pyridine Alkaloids from Sponges Collected at a Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vent Site North of Iceland

1
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík 107, Iceland
2
Center for Systems Biology, University of Iceland, Reykjavík 101, Iceland
3
Denali Therapeutics, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
4
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057, USA
5
Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Alfred-Wegener-Institute, Bremerhaven D-27570, Germany
6
Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik 101, Iceland
7
Department of Biology and KG Jebsen Centre for Deep Sea Research, University of Bergen, Bergen 5020, Norway
8
Center for Biomedicine, European Academy of Bolzano/Bozen, Bolzano 39100, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kirsten Benkendorff
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4145 KB, uploaded 22 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Twenty-eight sponge specimens were collected at a shallow water hydrothermal vent site north of Iceland. Extracts were prepared and tested in vitro for cytotoxic activity, and eight of them were shown to be cytotoxic. A mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach was used to determine the chemical composition of the extracts. This analysis highlighted clear differences in the metabolomes of three sponge specimens, and all of them were identified as Haliclona (Rhizoniera) rosea (Bowerbank, 1866). Therefore, these specimens were selected for further investigation. Haliclona rosea metabolomes contained a class of potential key compounds, the 3-alkyl pyridine alkaloids (3-APA) responsible for the cytotoxic activity of the fractions. Several 3-APA compounds were tentatively identified including haliclamines, cyclostellettamines, viscosalines and viscosamines. Among these compounds, cyclostellettamine P was tentatively identified for the first time by using ion mobility MS in time-aligned parallel (TAP) fragmentation mode. In this work, we show the potential of applying metabolomics strategies and in particular the utility of coupling ion mobility with MS for the molecular characterization of sponge specimens. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine natural products; sponges; metabolomics; ion mobility; Haliclona rosea marine natural products; sponges; metabolomics; ion mobility; Haliclona rosea
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Einarsdottir, E.; Magnusdottir, M.; Astarita, G.; Köck, M.; Ögmundsdottir, H.M.; Thorsteinsdottir, M.; Rapp, H.T.; Omarsdottir, S.; Paglia, G. Metabolic Profiling as a Screening Tool for Cytotoxic Compounds: Identification of 3-Alkyl Pyridine Alkaloids from Sponges Collected at a Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vent Site North of Iceland. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 52.

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