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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(11), 347; doi:10.3390/md15110347

Immunoenhancement Effects of Glycosaminoglycan from Apostichopus japonicus: In Vitro and In Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppressed Mice Studies

1,†
,
1,2,3,†
,
1,2,3
,
1,2,3
,
1
and
1,2,3,*
1
School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong, China
2
Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266003, Shandong, China
3
Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Ministry of Education of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract

In this study, the immunomodulatory activities of Apostichopus japonicus glycosaminoglycan (AHG) on the nature killer (NK) cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and cyclophosphamide (CY)-treated mice were investigated. After stimulation with multiple concentrations of AHG (0–100 μg/mL), NK cells and CTLs displayed outperformance against YAC-1 and B16 cells, respectively. Furthermore, the mitogen-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation in CY-induced immunosuppressed mice was significantly promoted by AHG. In addition, the administration of AHG dramatically increased the splenocytes Ca2+ concentration and the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, AHG could strongly increase the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), the activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and could decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the heart, kidney and liver. These findings indicated that AHG played an important role in the immune enhancement and protection against CY-induced immunosuppression and oxidative damage. Our findings provide experimental evidence for further research and possible immunostimulatory applications of AHG in clinical practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea cucumber; glycosaminoglycan; cyclophosphamide; immunomodulation sea cucumber; glycosaminoglycan; cyclophosphamide; immunomodulation
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    Doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.10.010
    Description: Stucture of AHG

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Wang, H.; Yang, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, T.; Li, S.; Lv, Z. Immunoenhancement Effects of Glycosaminoglycan from Apostichopus japonicus: In Vitro and In Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppressed Mice Studies. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 347.

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