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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(11), 322; doi:10.3390/md15110322

Application of Chitosan, Chitooligosaccharide, and Their Derivatives in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

1
College of Ocean and Meteorology, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China
2
College of Chemistry and Environment, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China
3
American Studies and Ethnicity, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
4
Research Institute for Marine Drugs and Nutrition, College of Food Science and Technology, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China
5
Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 September 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds in Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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Abstract

Classic hypotheses of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) include cholinergic neuron death, acetylcholine (ACh) deficiency, metal ion dynamic equilibrium disorder, and deposition of amyloid and tau. Increased evidence suggests neuroinflammation and oxidative stress may cause AD. However, none of these factors induces AD independently, but they are all associated with the formation of Aβ and tau proteins. Current clinical treatments based on ACh deficiency can only temporarily relieve symptoms, accompanied with many side-effects. Hence, searching for natural neuroprotective agents, which can significantly improve the major symptoms and reverse disease progress, have received great attention. Currently, several bioactive marine products have shown neuroprotective activities, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects with low toxicity and mild side effects in laboratory studies. Recently, chitosan (CTS), chitooligosaccharide (COS) and their derivatives from exoskeletons of crustaceans and cell walls of fungi have shown neuroprotective and antioxidative effects, matrix metalloproteinase inhibition, anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory properties. With regards to the hypotheses of AD, the neuroprotective effect of CTS, COS, and their derivatives on AD-like changes in several models have been reported. CTS and COS exert beneficial effects on cognitive impairments via inhibiting oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. They are also a new type of non-toxic β-secretase and AChE inhibitor. As neuroprotective agents, they could reduce the cell membrane damage caused by copper ions and decrease the content of reactive oxygen species. This review will focus on their anti-neuroinflammation, antioxidants and their inhibition of β-amyloid, acetylcholinesterase and copper ions adsorption. Finally, the limitations and future work will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; chitooligosaccharide; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress; neuroprotective; Alzheimer’s disease chitosan; chitooligosaccharide; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress; neuroprotective; Alzheimer’s disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ouyang, Q.-Q.; Zhao, S.; Li, S.-D.; Song, C. Application of Chitosan, Chitooligosaccharide, and Their Derivatives in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 322.

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