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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(10), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15100318

Identification and Characterization of an Isoform Antifreeze Protein from the Antarctic Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros neogracile and Suggestion of the Core Region

1
Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Korea
2
Division of Polar Life Science, Korea Polar Research Institute, KIOST, Incheon 406-840, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract

Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protecting the cells against freezing are produced in response to extremely low temperatures in diverse psychrophilic organisms, and they are encoded by multiple gene families. The AFP of Antarctic marine diatom Chaetoceros neogracile is reported in our previous research, but like other microalgae, was considered to probably have additional genes coding AFPs. In this paper, we reported the cloning and characterization of additional AFP gene from C. neogracile (Cn-isoAFP). Cn-isoAFP protein is 74.6% identical to the previously reported Cn-AFP. The promoter sequence of Cn-isoAFP contains environmental stress responsive elements for cold, thermal, and high light conditions. Cn-isoAFP transcription levels increased dramatically when cells were exposed to freezing (−20 °C), thermal (10 °C), or high light (600 μmol photon m−2 s−1) stresses. The thermal hysteresis (TH) activity of recombinant Cn-isoAFP was 0.8 °C at a protein concentration of 5 mg/mL. Results from homology modeling and TH activity analysis of site-directed mutant proteins elucidated AFP mechanism to be a result of flatness of B-face maintained via hydrophobic interactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antarctic marine diatom; Chaetoceros neogracile; isoform antifreeze protein; antifreeze activity; 3D-structure modeling Antarctic marine diatom; Chaetoceros neogracile; isoform antifreeze protein; antifreeze activity; 3D-structure modeling
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Kim, M.; Gwak, Y.; Jung, W.; Jin, E. Identification and Characterization of an Isoform Antifreeze Protein from the Antarctic Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros neogracile and Suggestion of the Core Region. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 318.

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