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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(7), 4281-4295; doi:10.3390/md13074281

Distribution of Marine Lipophilic Toxins in Shellfish Products Collected from the Chinese Market

1,2,3
,
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,
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1,2,3,* , 1,2
and
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1
Carbon-sink Fisheries Laboratory, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
2
Key Laboratory of Testing and Evaluation for Aquatic Product Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture, Qingdao 266071, China
3
National Center for Quality Supervision and Test of Aquatic Products, Qingdao 266071, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Angela Capper and Cherie Motti
Received: 26 March 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 3 July 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Okadaic Acid and Dinophysis Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [855 KB, uploaded 14 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

To investigate the prevalence of lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish from the Chinese market, we used hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to measure levels of okadaic acid (OA), azaspiracid (AZA1), pectenotoxin (PTX2), gymnodimine (GYM), and spirolide (SPX1). We collected and analyzed 291 shellfish samples from main production sites along a wide latitudinal transect along the Chinese coastline from December 2008 to December 2009. Results revealed a patchy distribution of the five toxins and highlighted the specific geographical distribution and seasonal and species variation of the putative toxigenic organisms. All five lipophilic marine biotoxins were found in shellfish samples. The highest concentrations of OA, AZA1, PTX2, GYM, and SPX1 were 37.3, 5.90, 16.4, 14.4, and 8.97 μg/kg, respectively. These values were much lower than the legislation limits for lipophilic shellfish toxins. However, the value might be significantly underestimated for the limited detection toxins. Also, these toxins were found in most coastal areas of China and were present in almost all seasons of the year. Thus, these five toxins represent a potential threat to human health. Consequently, studies should be conducted and measures should be taken to ensure the safety of the harvested product. View Full-Text
Keywords: ESI-LC-MS/MS; identification; distribution; lipophilic toxins; shellfish ESI-LC-MS/MS; identification; distribution; lipophilic toxins; shellfish
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, H.; Yao, J.; Guo, M.; Tan, Z.; Zhou, D.; Zhai, Y. Distribution of Marine Lipophilic Toxins in Shellfish Products Collected from the Chinese Market. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 4281-4295.

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