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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(6), 3340-3359; doi:10.3390/md13063340

Seaweed Hydrocolloid Production: An Update on Enzyme Assisted Extraction and Modification Technologies

Center for Bioprocess Engineering, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Søltofts Plads, Building 229, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Laurienzo
Received: 28 February 2015 / Accepted: 13 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Polysaccharides)
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Abstract

Agar, alginate, and carrageenans are high-value seaweed hydrocolloids, which are used as gelation and thickening agents in different food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. The annual global production of these hydrocolloids has recently reached 100,000 tons with a gross market value just above US$ 1.1 billion. The techno-functional properties of the seaweed polysaccharides depend strictly on their unique structural make-up, notably degree and position of sulfation and presence of anhydro-bridges. Classical extraction techniques include hot alkali treatments, but recent research has shown promising results with enzymes. Current methods mainly involve use of commercially available enzyme mixtures developed for terrestrial plant material processing. Application of seaweed polysaccharide targeted enzymes allows for selective extraction at mild conditions as well as tailor-made modifications of the hydrocolloids to obtain specific functionalities. This review provides an update of the detailed structural features of κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans, agars, and alginate, and a thorough discussion of enzyme assisted extraction and processing techniques for these hydrocolloids. View Full-Text
Keywords: seaweed; carrageenan; alginate; agar; hydrocolloid; enzymatic extraction seaweed; carrageenan; alginate; agar; hydrocolloid; enzymatic extraction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rhein-Knudsen, N.; Ale, M.T.; Meyer, A.S. Seaweed Hydrocolloid Production: An Update on Enzyme Assisted Extraction and Modification Technologies. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 3340-3359.

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