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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(12), 7390-7402; doi:10.3390/md13127072

Algal Toxin Azaspiracid-1 Induces Early Neuronal Differentiation and Alters Peripherin Isoform Stoichiometry

1
Department of Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Thormøhlensgate 55, N-5008 Bergen, Norway
2
Institute of Marine Research, Matre Research Station, N-5984 Matredal, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lucio Costa
Received: 17 August 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 December 2015 / Published: 14 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Neurotoxins)
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Abstract

Azaspiracid-1 is an algal toxin that accumulates in edible mussels, and ingestion may result in human illness as manifested by vomiting and diarrhoea. When injected into mice, it causes neurotoxicological symptoms and death. Although it is well known that azaspiracid-1 is toxic to most cells and cell lines, little is known about its biological target(s). A rat PC12 cell line, commonly used as a model for the peripheral nervous system, was used to study the neurotoxicological effects of azaspiracid-1. Azaspiracid-1 induced differentiation-related morphological changes followed by a latter cell death. The differentiated phenotype showed peripherin-labelled neurite-like processes simultaneously as a specific isoform of peripherin was down-regulated. The precise mechanism behind this down-regulation remains uncertain. However, this study provides new insights into the neurological effects of azaspiracid-1 and into the biological significance of specific isoforms of peripherin. View Full-Text
Keywords: azaspiracid; algal toxin; neurotoxin; peripherin; intermediate filament; isoform; PC12 cells azaspiracid; algal toxin; neurotoxin; peripherin; intermediate filament; isoform; PC12 cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hjørnevik, L.V.; Frøyset, A.K.; Grønset, T.A.; Rungruangsak-Torrissen, K.; Fladmark, K.E. Algal Toxin Azaspiracid-1 Induces Early Neuronal Differentiation and Alters Peripherin Isoform Stoichiometry. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 7390-7402.

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