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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(12), 7124-7137; doi:10.3390/md13127061

Influence of Temperature on Growth and Production of Pectenotoxin-2 by a Monoclonal Culture of Dinophysis caudata

1
Department of Ocean Sciences, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan
2
National research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-8648, Japan
3
Nagasaki Prefectural Institute of Fisheries, 1551-4 Taira, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 851-2213, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cherie Motti
Received: 5 June 2015 / Revised: 1 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Okadaic Acid and Dinophysis Toxins)
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Abstract

The effects of temperature on growth and production of Lipophilic Toxins (LT) by a monoclonal culture of Dinophysis caudata was studied. The cell density of D. caudata increased significantly with increasing temperature, and was the highest under 27, 30, and 32.5 °C. Temperature affected the average specific growth rate (µ) during the exponential growth phase (EG), which increased from 15 °C to 30 °C, and then decreased at 32.5 °C. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that this strain of D. caudata produced only pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) whose concentration increased significantly with incubation period, except at 32.5 °C. It was significantly different between temperatures ≤18 °C, ≥21 °C, and 32.5 °C. The cellular toxin production (CTP, pg·cell−1·day−1) showed variation with growth phase and temperature, except at 32.5 °C. The average net toxin production (Rtox) was not affected by temperature. During EG, the average specific toxin production rate (µtox) increased significantly with increase in temperature, reaching a peak of 0.66 ± 0.01 day−1 at 30 °C, and then decreased. Over the entire growth span, µtox was significantly correlated to µ, and this correlation was most significant at 27 and 30 °C. During EG, µtox was affected by both temperature and growth. This study shows that temperature affects growth and toxin production of this strain of D. caudata during EG. In addition, a positive correlation was found between toxin production and growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: Dinophysis caudata; culture; growth; pectenotoxin-2; temperature Dinophysis caudata; culture; growth; pectenotoxin-2; temperature
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Basti, L.; Uchida, H.; Matsushima, R.; Watanabe, R.; Suzuki, T.; Yamatogi, T.; Nagai, S. Influence of Temperature on Growth and Production of Pectenotoxin-2 by a Monoclonal Culture of Dinophysis caudata. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 7124-7137.

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