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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(8), 4602-4615; doi:10.3390/md12084602

Echinochrome A Increases Mitochondrial Mass and Function by Modulating Mitochondrial Biogenesis Regulatory Genes

1
Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center (CMDC), National Research Laboratory for Mitochondrial Signaling, Inje University, Busan 614-735, Korea
2
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan 614-735, Korea
3
Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Graduate School of Inje University, Busan 614-735, Korea
4
George B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Prospect 100 let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 3 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
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Abstract

Echinochrome A (Ech A) is a natural pigment from sea urchins that has been reported to have antioxidant properties and a cardio protective effect against ischemia reperfusion injury. In this study, we ascertained whether Ech A enhances the mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation in rat cardio myoblast H9c2 cells. To study the effects of Ech A on mitochondrial biogenesis, we measured mitochondrial mass, level of oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial biogenesis regulatory gene expression. Ech A treatment did not induce cytotoxicity. However, Ech A treatment enhanced oxygen consumption rate and mitochondrial ATP level. Likewise, Ech A treatment increased mitochondrial contents in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, Ech A treatment up-regulated biogenesis of regulatory transcription genes, including proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator (PGC)-1α, estrogen-related receptor (ERR)-α, peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor (PPAR)-γ, and nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-1 and such mitochondrial transcription regulatory genes as mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM), mitochondrial transcription factor B2 (TFB2M), mitochondrial DNA direct polymerase (POLMRT), single strand binding protein (SSBP) and Tu translation elongation factor (TUFM). In conclusion, these data suggest that Ech A is a potentiated marine drug which enhances mitochondrial biogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: echinochrome A; mitochondrial biogenesis; oxygen consumption rate echinochrome A; mitochondrial biogenesis; oxygen consumption rate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jeong, S.H.; Kim, H.K.; Song, I.-S.; Noh, S.J.; Marquez, J.; Ko, K.S.; Rhee, B.D.; Kim, N.; Mishchenko, N.P.; Fedoreyev, S.A.; Stonik, V.A.; Han, J. Echinochrome A Increases Mitochondrial Mass and Function by Modulating Mitochondrial Biogenesis Regulatory Genes. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 4602-4615.

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