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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(8), 4291-4310; doi:10.3390/md12084291

Astaxanthin Alleviates Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats: Possible Involvement of Akt/Bad Signaling

Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210000, Jiangsu, China
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Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 4 July 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 28 July 2014
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Abstract

Apoptosis has been proven to play a crucial role in early brain injury pathogenesis and to represent a target for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Previously, we demonstrated that astaxanthin (ATX) administration markedly reduced neuronal apoptosis in the early period after SAH. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. In the present study, we tried to investigate whether ATX administration is associated with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, which can play an important role in the signaling of apoptosis. Our results showed that post-SAH treatment with ATX could cause a significant increase of phosphorylated Akt and Bad levels, along with a significant decrease of cleaved caspase-3 levels in the cortex after SAH. In addition to the reduced neuronal apoptosis, treatment with ATX could also significantly reduce secondary brain injury characterized by neurological dysfunction, cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier disruption. In contrast, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, could partially reverse the neuroprotection of ATX in the early period after SAH by downregulating ATX-induced activation of Akt/Bad and upregulating cleaved caspase-3 levels. These results provided the evidence that ATX could attenuate apoptosis in a rat SAH model, potentially, in part, through modulating the Akt/Bad pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: subarachnoid hemorrhage; early brain injury; astaxanthin; apoptosis; Akt/Bad pathway subarachnoid hemorrhage; early brain injury; astaxanthin; apoptosis; Akt/Bad pathway
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.-S.; Zhang, X.; Wu, Q.; Li, W.; Zhang, Q.-R.; Wang, C.-X.; Zhou, X.-M.; Li, H.; Shi, J.-X.; Zhou, M.-L. Astaxanthin Alleviates Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats: Possible Involvement of Akt/Bad Signaling. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 4291-4310.

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