Abstract: Siphonaxanthin is a specific keto-carotenoid in green algae whose bio-functional properties are yet to be identified. This review focuses on siphonaxanthin as a bioactive compound and outlines the evidence associated with functionality. Siphonaxanthin has been reported to potently inhibit the viability of human leukemia HL-60 cells via induction of apoptosis. In comparison with fucoxanthin, siphonaxanthin markedly reduced cell viability as early as 6 h after treatment. The cellular uptake of siphonaxanthin was 2-fold higher than fucoxanthin. It has been proposed that siphonaxanthin possesses significant anti-angiogenic activity in studies using human umbilical vein endothelial cells and rat aortic ring. The results of these studies suggested that the anti-angiogenic effect of siphonaxanthin is due to the down-regulation of signal transduction by fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 in vascular endothelial cells. Siphonaxanthin also exhibited inhibitory effects on antigen-induced degranulation of mast cells. These findings open up new avenues for future research on siphonaxanthin as a bioactive compound, and additional investigation, especially in vivo studies, are required to validate these findings. In addition, further studies are needed to determine its bioavailability and metabolic fate.
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Sugawara, T.; Ganesan, P.; Li, Z.; Manabe, Y.; Hirata, T. Siphonaxanthin, a Green Algal Carotenoid, as a Novel Functional Compound. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 3660-3668.
Sugawara T, Ganesan P, Li Z, Manabe Y, Hirata T. Siphonaxanthin, a Green Algal Carotenoid, as a Novel Functional Compound. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(6):3660-3668.
Sugawara, Tatsuya; Ganesan, Ponesakki; Li, Zhuosi; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi. 2014. "Siphonaxanthin, a Green Algal Carotenoid, as a Novel Functional Compound." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 6: 3660-3668.