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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(6), 3660-3668; doi:10.3390/md12063660
Review

Siphonaxanthin, a Green Algal Carotenoid, as a Novel Functional Compound

1,* , 1,2
,
1
,
1
 and
1,3
1 Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawaoiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan 2 SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Tamilnadu 603 203, India 3 Department of Rehabilitation, Shijonawate Gakuen University, 5-11-10 Hojo, Daito, Osaka 574-0011, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 March 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids (Special Issue))
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Abstract

Siphonaxanthin is a specific keto-carotenoid in green algae whose bio-functional properties are yet to be identified. This review focuses on siphonaxanthin as a bioactive compound and outlines the evidence associated with functionality. Siphonaxanthin has been reported to potently inhibit the viability of human leukemia HL-60 cells via induction of apoptosis. In comparison with fucoxanthin, siphonaxanthin markedly reduced cell viability as early as 6 h after treatment. The cellular uptake of siphonaxanthin was 2-fold higher than fucoxanthin. It has been proposed that siphonaxanthin possesses significant anti-angiogenic activity in studies using human umbilical vein endothelial cells and rat aortic ring. The results of these studies suggested that the anti-angiogenic effect of siphonaxanthin is due to the down-regulation of signal transduction by fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 in vascular endothelial cells. Siphonaxanthin also exhibited inhibitory effects on antigen-induced degranulation of mast cells. These findings open up new avenues for future research on siphonaxanthin as a bioactive compound, and additional investigation, especially in vivo studies, are required to validate these findings. In addition, further studies are needed to determine its bioavailability and metabolic fate.
Keywords: angiogenesis; apoptosis; carotenoid; inflammation; green algae; siphonaxanthin angiogenesis; apoptosis; carotenoid; inflammation; green algae; siphonaxanthin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Sugawara, T.; Ganesan, P.; Li, Z.; Manabe, Y.; Hirata, T. Siphonaxanthin, a Green Algal Carotenoid, as a Novel Functional Compound. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 3660-3668.

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