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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(6), 3660-3668; doi:10.3390/md12063660

Siphonaxanthin, a Green Algal Carotenoid, as a Novel Functional Compound

1,* , 1,2
1 Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawaoiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan 2 SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Tamilnadu 603 203, India 3 Department of Rehabilitation, Shijonawate Gakuen University, 5-11-10 Hojo, Daito, Osaka 574-0011, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 March 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids)
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Siphonaxanthin is a specific keto-carotenoid in green algae whose bio-functional properties are yet to be identified. This review focuses on siphonaxanthin as a bioactive compound and outlines the evidence associated with functionality. Siphonaxanthin has been reported to potently inhibit the viability of human leukemia HL-60 cells via induction of apoptosis. In comparison with fucoxanthin, siphonaxanthin markedly reduced cell viability as early as 6 h after treatment. The cellular uptake of siphonaxanthin was 2-fold higher than fucoxanthin. It has been proposed that siphonaxanthin possesses significant anti-angiogenic activity in studies using human umbilical vein endothelial cells and rat aortic ring. The results of these studies suggested that the anti-angiogenic effect of siphonaxanthin is due to the down-regulation of signal transduction by fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 in vascular endothelial cells. Siphonaxanthin also exhibited inhibitory effects on antigen-induced degranulation of mast cells. These findings open up new avenues for future research on siphonaxanthin as a bioactive compound, and additional investigation, especially in vivo studies, are required to validate these findings. In addition, further studies are needed to determine its bioavailability and metabolic fate.
Keywords: angiogenesis; apoptosis; carotenoid; inflammation; green algae; siphonaxanthin angiogenesis; apoptosis; carotenoid; inflammation; green algae; siphonaxanthin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Sugawara, T.; Ganesan, P.; Li, Z.; Manabe, Y.; Hirata, T. Siphonaxanthin, a Green Algal Carotenoid, as a Novel Functional Compound. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 3660-3668.

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