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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(6), 3560-3573; doi:10.3390/md12063560

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Pigment Echinochrome A from Sea Urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis

1
National Research Laboratory for Mitochondrial Signaling, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735, Korea
2
Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Graduate School of Inje University, Busan 613-735, Korea
3
Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Prospect 100 let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 March 2014 / Revised: 10 May 2014 / Accepted: 29 May 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
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Abstract

Echinochrome A (EchA) is a dark-red pigment of the polyhydroxynaphthoquinone class isolated from sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are used in the treatment of various neuromuscular disorders, and are considered as strong therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although EchA is clinically used to treat ophthalmic diseases and limit infarct formation during ischemia/ reperfusion injury, anti-AChE effect of EchA is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-AChE effect of EchA in vitro. EchA and its exhausted form which lost anti-oxidant capacity did not show any significant cytotoxicy on the H9c2 and A7r5 cells. EchA inhibited AChE with an irreversible and uncompetitive mode. In addition, EchA showed reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, particularly with nitric oxide. These findings indicate new therapeutic potential for EchA in treating reduced acetylcholine-related diseases including AD and provide an insight into developing new AChE inhibitors. View Full-Text
Keywords: acetylcholinesterase; echinochrome A; nitric oxide; sea urchin; uncompetitive acetylcholinesterase; echinochrome A; nitric oxide; sea urchin; uncompetitive
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, S.R.; Pronto, J.R.D.; Sarankhuu, B.-E.; Ko, K.S.; Rhee, B.D.; Kim, N.; Mishchenko, N.P.; Fedoreyev, S.A.; Stonik, V.A.; Han, J. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Pigment Echinochrome A from Sea Urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 3560-3573.

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