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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(5), 2922-2936; doi:10.3390/md12052922

Echinochrome A Protects Mitochondrial Function in Cardiomyocytes against Cardiotoxic Drugs

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1 National Research Laboratory for Mitochondrial Signaling, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center (CMDC), Inje University, Busan 614-735, Korea 2 Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Graduate School of Inje University, Busan 614-735, Korea 3 Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Prospect 100 let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 March 2014 / Revised: 22 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 13 May 2014
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Echinochrome A (Ech A) is a naphthoquinoid pigment from sea urchins that possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and chelating abilities. Although Ech A is the active substance in the ophthalmic and cardiac drug Histochrome®, its underlying cardioprotective mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the protective role of Ech A against toxic agents that induce death of rat cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells and isolated rat cardiomyocytes. We found that the cardiotoxic agents tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP, organic reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer), sodium nitroprusside (SNP; anti-hypertension drug), and doxorubicin (anti-cancer drug) caused mitochondrial dysfunction such as increased ROS level and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Co-treatment with Ech A, however, prevented this decrease in membrane potential and increase in ROS level. Co-treatment of Ech A also reduced the effects of these cardiotoxic agents on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and adenosine triphosphate level. These findings indicate the therapeutic potential of Ech A for reducing cardiotoxic agent-induced damage.
Keywords: hrome A; mitochondrial function; cardiotoxic drugs; SNP; tBHP; doxorubicin hrome A; mitochondrial function; cardiotoxic drugs; SNP; tBHP; doxorubicin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Jeong, S.H.; Kim, H.K.; Song, I.-S.; Lee, S.J.; Ko, K.S.; Rhee, B.D.; Kim, N.; Mishchenko, N.P.; Fedoryev, S.A.; Stonik, V.A.; Han, J. Echinochrome A Protects Mitochondrial Function in Cardiomyocytes against Cardiotoxic Drugs. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 2922-2936.

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