Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(5), 2922-2936; doi:10.3390/md12052922
Article

Echinochrome A Protects Mitochondrial Function in Cardiomyocytes against Cardiotoxic Drugs

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Received: 27 March 2014; in revised form: 22 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 13 May 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Echinochrome A (Ech A) is a naphthoquinoid pigment from sea urchins that possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and chelating abilities. Although Ech A is the active substance in the ophthalmic and cardiac drug Histochrome®, its underlying cardioprotective mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the protective role of Ech A against toxic agents that induce death of rat cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells and isolated rat cardiomyocytes. We found that the cardiotoxic agents tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP, organic reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer), sodium nitroprusside (SNP; anti-hypertension drug), and doxorubicin (anti-cancer drug) caused mitochondrial dysfunction such as increased ROS level and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Co-treatment with Ech A, however, prevented this decrease in membrane potential and increase in ROS level. Co-treatment of Ech A also reduced the effects of these cardiotoxic agents on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and adenosine triphosphate level. These findings indicate the therapeutic potential of Ech A for reducing cardiotoxic agent-induced damage.
Keywords: hrome A; mitochondrial function; cardiotoxic drugs; SNP; tBHP; doxorubicin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jeong, S.H.; Kim, H.K.; Song, I.-S.; Lee, S.J.; Ko, K.S.; Rhee, B.D.; Kim, N.; Mishchenko, N.P.; Fedoryev, S.A.; Stonik, V.A.; Han, J. Echinochrome A Protects Mitochondrial Function in Cardiomyocytes against Cardiotoxic Drugs. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 2922-2936.

AMA Style

Jeong SH, Kim HK, Song I-S, Lee SJ, Ko KS, Rhee BD, Kim N, Mishchenko NP, Fedoryev SA, Stonik VA, Han J. Echinochrome A Protects Mitochondrial Function in Cardiomyocytes against Cardiotoxic Drugs. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(5):2922-2936.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jeong, Seung H.; Kim, Hyoung K.; Song, In-Sung; Lee, Seon J.; Ko, Kyung S.; Rhee, Byoung D.; Kim, Nari; Mishchenko, Natalia P.; Fedoryev, Sergey A.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Han, Jin. 2014. "Echinochrome A Protects Mitochondrial Function in Cardiomyocytes against Cardiotoxic Drugs." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 5: 2922-2936.

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