Abstract: Echinochrome A (Ech A) is a naphthoquinoid pigment from sea urchins that possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and chelating abilities. Although Ech A is the active substance in the ophthalmic and cardiac drug Histochrome®, its underlying cardioprotective mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the protective role of Ech A against toxic agents that induce death of rat cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells and isolated rat cardiomyocytes. We found that the cardiotoxic agents tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP, organic reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer), sodium nitroprusside (SNP; anti-hypertension drug), and doxorubicin (anti-cancer drug) caused mitochondrial dysfunction such as increased ROS level and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Co-treatment with Ech A, however, prevented this decrease in membrane potential and increase in ROS level. Co-treatment of Ech A also reduced the effects of these cardiotoxic agents on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and adenosine triphosphate level. These findings indicate the therapeutic potential of Ech A for reducing cardiotoxic agent-induced damage.
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Jeong, S.H.; Kim, H.K.; Song, I.-S.; Lee, S.J.; Ko, K.S.; Rhee, B.D.; Kim, N.; Mishchenko, N.P.; Fedoryev, S.A.; Stonik, V.A.; Han, J. Echinochrome A Protects Mitochondrial Function in Cardiomyocytes against Cardiotoxic Drugs. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 2922-2936.
Jeong SH, Kim HK, Song I-S, Lee SJ, Ko KS, Rhee BD, Kim N, Mishchenko NP, Fedoryev SA, Stonik VA, Han J. Echinochrome A Protects Mitochondrial Function in Cardiomyocytes against Cardiotoxic Drugs. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(5):2922-2936.
Jeong, Seung H.; Kim, Hyoung K.; Song, In-Sung; Lee, Seon J.; Ko, Kyung S.; Rhee, Byoung D.; Kim, Nari; Mishchenko, Natalia P.; Fedoryev, Sergey A.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Han, Jin. 2014. "Echinochrome A Protects Mitochondrial Function in Cardiomyocytes against Cardiotoxic Drugs." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 5: 2922-2936.