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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(5), 2922-2936; doi:10.3390/md12052922

Echinochrome A Protects Mitochondrial Function in Cardiomyocytes against Cardiotoxic Drugs

National Research Laboratory for Mitochondrial Signaling, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center (CMDC), Inje University, Busan 614-735, Korea
Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Graduate School of Inje University, Busan 614-735, Korea
Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Prospect 100 let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 March 2014 / Revised: 22 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 13 May 2014
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Echinochrome A (Ech A) is a naphthoquinoid pigment from sea urchins that possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and chelating abilities. Although Ech A is the active substance in the ophthalmic and cardiac drug Histochrome®, its underlying cardioprotective mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the protective role of Ech A against toxic agents that induce death of rat cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells and isolated rat cardiomyocytes. We found that the cardiotoxic agents tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP, organic reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer), sodium nitroprusside (SNP; anti-hypertension drug), and doxorubicin (anti-cancer drug) caused mitochondrial dysfunction such as increased ROS level and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Co-treatment with Ech A, however, prevented this decrease in membrane potential and increase in ROS level. Co-treatment of Ech A also reduced the effects of these cardiotoxic agents on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and adenosine triphosphate level. These findings indicate the therapeutic potential of Ech A for reducing cardiotoxic agent-induced damage.
Keywords: hrome A; mitochondrial function; cardiotoxic drugs; SNP; tBHP; doxorubicin hrome A; mitochondrial function; cardiotoxic drugs; SNP; tBHP; doxorubicin

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Jeong, S.H.; Kim, H.K.; Song, I.-S.; Lee, S.J.; Ko, K.S.; Rhee, B.D.; Kim, N.; Mishchenko, N.P.; Fedoryev, S.A.; Stonik, V.A.; Han, J. Echinochrome A Protects Mitochondrial Function in Cardiomyocytes against Cardiotoxic Drugs. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 2922-2936.

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