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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(12), 5944-5959; doi:10.3390/md12125944

Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) as a Marine Functional Source of Gamma-Tocopherol

1
Department of Animal Production, Technical School of Agricultural Engineering, Polytechnic University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre (ARC), P.O. Box 48, N-4001 Stavanger, Norway
3
Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, University of Kiel, Hermann-Rodewald-Straße 6-8, D-24118 Kiel, Germany
4
Lucta, Can Parellada 28, 08170 Montornés del Vallés, Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2014 / Revised: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 26 November 2014 / Published: 9 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food Products - Cardiovascular Diseases)
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Abstract

Gamma tocopherol (gT) exhibits beneficial cardiovascular effects partly due to its anti-inflammatory activity. Important sources of gT are vegetable oils. However, little is known to what extent gT can be transferred into marine animal species such as Atlantic salmon by feeding. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the transfer of dietary gT into salmon. To this end, fish were fed a diet supplemented with 170 ppm gT for 16 weeks whereby alpha tocopherol levels were adjusted to 190 ppm in this and the control diet. Feeding gT-rich diets resulted in a three-fold increase in gT concentrations in the liver and fillet compared to non-gT-supplemented controls. Tissue alpha tocopherol levels were not decreased indicating no antagonistic interaction between gamma- and alpha tocopherol in salmon. The concentration of total omega 3 fatty acids slightly increased in response to dietary gT. Furthermore, dietary gT significantly decreased malondialdehyde in the fillet, determined as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation. In the liver of gT fed salmon we observed an overall down-regulation of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. Additionally, gT improved the antioxidant capacity by up-regulating Gpx4a gene expression in the pyloric caeca. We suggest that Atlantic salmon may provide a marine functional source capable of enriching gT for human consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: gamma tocopherol; vitamin E; oily fish; salmon (Salmo salar); omega 3 fatty acids; functional foods; cardiovascular disease gamma tocopherol; vitamin E; oily fish; salmon (Salmo salar); omega 3 fatty acids; functional foods; cardiovascular disease
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Menoyo, D.; Sanz-Bayón, C.; Nessa, A.H.; Esatbeyoglu, T.; Faizan, M.; Pallauf, K.; De Diego, N.; Wagner, A.E.; Ipharraguerre, I.; Stubhaug, I.; Rimbach, G. Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) as a Marine Functional Source of Gamma-Tocopherol. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 5944-5959.

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