Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(8), 2814-2828; doi:10.3390/md11082814
Review

Evolution and Distribution of Saxitoxin Biosynthesis in Dinoflagellates

1,2
, 1
, 3,4
 and 1,2,*
Received: 22 May 2013; in revised form: 4 July 2013 / Accepted: 8 July 2013 / Published: 8 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Shellfish Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [598 KB, uploaded 8 August 2013]
Abstract: Numerous species of marine dinoflagellates synthesize the potent environmental neurotoxic alkaloid, saxitoxin, the agent of the human illness, paralytic shellfish poisoning. In addition, certain freshwater species of cyanobacteria also synthesize the same toxic compound, with the biosynthetic pathway and genes responsible being recently reported. Three theories have been postulated to explain the origin of saxitoxin in dinoflagellates: The production of saxitoxin by co-cultured bacteria rather than the dinoflagellates themselves, convergent evolution within both dinoflagellates and bacteria and horizontal gene transfer between dinoflagellates and bacteria. The discovery of cyanobacterial saxitoxin homologs in dinoflagellates has enabled us for the first time to evaluate these theories. Here, we review the distribution of saxitoxin within the dinoflagellates and our knowledge of its genetic basis to determine the likely evolutionary origins of this potent neurotoxin.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; dinoflagellates; harmful algal blooms (HABs); horizontal gene transfer (HGT); phylogeny; paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP); paralytic shellfish toxin (PST); saxitoxin; STX cyanobacteria; dinoflagellates; harmful algal blooms (HABs); horizontal gene transfer (HGT); phylogeny; paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP); paralytic shellfish toxin (PST); saxitoxin; STX
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Orr, R.J.S.; Stüken, A.; Murray, S.A.; Jakobsen, K.S. Evolution and Distribution of Saxitoxin Biosynthesis in Dinoflagellates. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 2814-2828.

AMA Style

Orr RJS, Stüken A, Murray SA, Jakobsen KS. Evolution and Distribution of Saxitoxin Biosynthesis in Dinoflagellates. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(8):2814-2828.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Orr, Russell J.S.; Stüken, Anke; Murray, Shauna A.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S. 2013. "Evolution and Distribution of Saxitoxin Biosynthesis in Dinoflagellates." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 8: 2814-2828.



Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert