Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(8), 2785-2798; doi:10.3390/md11082785
Article

Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Rapid Screening for the Nephrotoxic and Hepatotoxic Effects of Microcystins

1 Institute of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Korytkova 2, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia 2 Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloška 4, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia 3 Centre for Clinical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Vrazov trg 2, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia 4 Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 23, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 April 2013; in revised form: 4 June 2013 / Accepted: 19 July 2013 / Published: 5 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compounds from Cyanobacteria)
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Abstract: In vivo visualization of kidney and liver damage by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may offer an advantage when there is a need for a simple, non-invasive and rapid method for screening of the effects of potential nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic substances in chronic experiments. Here, we used MRI for monitoring chronic intoxication with microcystins (MCs) in rat. Male adult Wistar rats were treated every other day for eight months, either with MC-LR (10 μg/kg i.p.) or MC-YR (10 μg/kg i.p.). Control groups were treated with vehicle solutions. T1-weighted MR-images were acquired before and at the end of the eight months experimental period. Kidney injury induced by the MCs presented with the increased intensity of T1-weighted MR-signal of the kidneys and liver as compared to these organs from the control animals treated for eight months, either with the vehicle solution or with saline. The intensification of the T1-weighted MR-signal correlated with the increased volume density of heavily injured tubuli (R2 = 0.77), with heavily damaged glomeruli (R2 = 0.84) and with volume density of connective tissue (R2 = 0.72). The changes in the MR signal intensity probably reflect the presence of an abundant proteinaceous material within the dilated nephrons and proliferation of the connective tissue. T1-weighted MRI-is a valuable method for the in vivo screening of kidney and liver damage in rat models of intoxication with hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic agents, such as microcystins.
Keywords: microcystin; chronic toxicity; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; kidney; liver; nephrotoxic

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MDPI and ACS Style

Milutinović, A.; Zorc-Pleskovič, R.; Živin, M.; Vovk, A.; Serša, I.; Šuput, D. Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Rapid Screening for the Nephrotoxic and Hepatotoxic Effects of Microcystins. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 2785-2798.

AMA Style

Milutinović A, Zorc-Pleskovič R, Živin M, Vovk A, Serša I, Šuput D. Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Rapid Screening for the Nephrotoxic and Hepatotoxic Effects of Microcystins. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(8):2785-2798.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Milutinović, Aleksandra; Zorc-Pleskovič, Ruda; Živin, Marko; Vovk, Andrej; Serša, Igor; Šuput, Dušan. 2013. "Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Rapid Screening for the Nephrotoxic and Hepatotoxic Effects of Microcystins." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 8: 2785-2798.

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