Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(7), 2643-2654; doi:10.3390/md11072643
Article

Occurrence of the Microcystins MC-LW and MC-LF in Dutch Surface Waters and Their Contribution to Total Microcystin Toxicity

1,* email and 1,2email
Received: 29 May 2013; in revised form: 8 July 2013 / Accepted: 12 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compounds from Cyanobacteria)
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Abstract: Microcystins (MCs) are the most frequently found cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater systems. Many MC variants have been identified and variants differ in their toxicity. Recent studies showed that the variants MC-LW and MC-LF might be more toxic than MC-LR, the variant that is most abundant and mostly used for risk assessments. As little is known about the presence of these two variants in The Netherlands, we determined their occurrence by analyzing 88 water samples and 10 scum samples for eight MC variants ((dm-7-)MC-RR, MC-YR, (dm-7-)MC-LR, MC-LY, MC-LW and MC-LF) by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. All analyzed MC variants were detected, and MC-LW and/or MC-LF were present in 32% of the MC containing water samples. When MC-LW and MC-LF were present, they contributed to nearly 10% of the total MC concentrations, but due to their suspected high toxicity, their average contribution to the total MC toxicity was estimated to be at least 45%. Given the frequent occurrence and possible high toxicity of MC-LW and MC-LF, it seems better to base health risk assessments on the toxicity contributions of different MC variants than on MC-LR concentrations alone.
Keywords: cyanobacterial bloom; cyanotoxins; hepatotoxins; LC-MS/MS; surface scum
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Faassen, E.J.; Lürling, M. Occurrence of the Microcystins MC-LW and MC-LF in Dutch Surface Waters and Their Contribution to Total Microcystin Toxicity. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 2643-2654.

AMA Style

Faassen EJ, Lürling M. Occurrence of the Microcystins MC-LW and MC-LF in Dutch Surface Waters and Their Contribution to Total Microcystin Toxicity. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(7):2643-2654.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Faassen, Elisabeth J.; Lürling, Miquel. 2013. "Occurrence of the Microcystins MC-LW and MC-LF in Dutch Surface Waters and Their Contribution to Total Microcystin Toxicity." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 7: 2643-2654.


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