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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(7), 2595-2615; doi:10.3390/md11072595

Lithothamnion muelleri Controls Inflammatory Responses, Target Organ Injury and Lethality Associated with Graft-versus-Host Disease in Mice

Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 1 July 2013 / Accepted: 2 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Inflammation)
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Lithothamnion muelleri (Hapalidiaceae) is a marine red alga, which is a member of a group of algae with anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory properties. The present study evaluated the effects of treatment with Lithothamnion muelleri extract (LM) in a model of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), using a model of adoptive splenocyte transfer from C57BL/6 donors into B6D2F1 recipient mice. Mice treated with LM showed reduced clinical signs of disease and mortality when compared with untreated mice. LM-treated mice had reduced tissue injury, less bacterial translocation, and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5)). The polysaccharide-rich fraction derived from LM could inhibit leukocyte rolling and adhesion in intestinal venules, as assessed by intravital microscopy. LM treatment did not impair the beneficial effects of graft-versus-leukaemia (GVL). Altogether, our studies suggest that treatment with Lithothamnion muelleri has a potential therapeutic application in GVHD treatment.
Keywords: algae; chemokine; cytokine; GVHD; inflammation algae; chemokine; cytokine; GVHD; inflammation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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Rezende, B.M.; Bernardes, P.T.T.; Resende, C.B.; Arantes, R.M.E.; Souza, D.G.; Braga, F.C.; Castor, M.G.M.; Teixeira, M.M.; Pinho, V. Lithothamnion muelleri Controls Inflammatory Responses, Target Organ Injury and Lethality Associated with Graft-versus-Host Disease in Mice. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 2595-2615.

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