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Okadaic Acid: A Tool to Study the Hippo Pathway
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan
Department of Psychotherapy, The Fourth People's Hospital of Urumqi, Urumqi 830000, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2013; in revised form: 4 February 2013 / Accepted: 19 February 2013 / Published: 14 March 2013
Abstract: Mammalian Ste20-like kinases 1 and 2 (MST1 and MST2) are activated in NIH3T3 cells exposed to okadaic acid. The Hippo pathway is a newly emerging signaling that functions as a tumor suppressor. MST1 and MST2 work as core kinases of the Hippo pathway and their activities depend on the autophosphorylation, which is negatively regulated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Okadaic acid has been frequently used to enhance the phosphorylation of MST1 and MST2 and to trigger the activation of the Hippo pathway. However other components of the Hippo pathway could also be targets of okadaic acid. In this review we first briefly summarize the molecular architecture of the Hippo pathway for the reference of researchers outside the field. We explain how MST kinases are regulated by PP2A and how okadaic acid activates MST2. Thereafter we discuss which components of the Hippo pathway are candidate substrates of protein phosphatases and which points we need to consider in the usage of okadaic acid to study the Hippo pathway.
Keywords: Hippo pathway; kinase; okadaic acid; phosphatase
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Hata, Y.; Timalsina, S.; Maimaiti, S. Okadaic Acid: A Tool to Study the Hippo Pathway. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 896-902.
Hata Y, Timalsina S, Maimaiti S. Okadaic Acid: A Tool to Study the Hippo Pathway. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(3):896-902.
Hata, Yutaka; Timalsina, Shikshya; Maimaiti, Sainawaer. 2013. "Okadaic Acid: A Tool to Study the Hippo Pathway." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 3: 896-902.