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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(3), 655-679; doi:10.3390/md11030655
Article

Biochemical and Electrophysiological Characterization of Two Sea Anemone Type 1 Potassium Toxins from a Geographically Distant Population of Bunodosoma caissarum

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1 Department of Physiology, Institute of Biosciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, 05508-090, Brazil 2 Center of Marine Biology, University of São Paulo, São Sebastião, SP, 11600-000, Brazil 3 Laboratory of Toxicology, University of Leuven (K.U. Leuven), Campus Gasthuisberg O&N2, Herestraat 49, P.O. Box 922, 3000 Leuven, Belgium 4 Laboratory of Venoms and Animals Toxins, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901, Brazil 5 Laboratorio de Genetica, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP, 05503-900, Brazil
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 December 2012 / Revised: 23 January 2013 / Accepted: 15 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Neurotoxins)
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Abstract

Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) venom is an important source of bioactive compounds used as tools to study the pharmacology and structure-function of voltage-gated K+ channels (KV). These neurotoxins can be divided into four different types, according to their structure and mode of action. In this work, for the first time, two toxins were purified from the venom of Bunodosoma caissarum population from Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Brazil. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis reveals that BcsTx1 and BcsTx2 are the newest members of the sea anemone type 1 potassium channel toxins. Their functional characterization was performed by means of a wide electrophysiological screening on 12 different subtypes of KV channels (KV1.1–KV1.6; KV2.1; KV3.1; KV4.2; KV4.3; hERG and Shaker IR). BcsTx1 shows a high affinity for rKv1.2 over rKv1.6, hKv1.3, Shaker IR and rKv1.1, while Bcstx2 potently blocked rKv1.6 over hKv1.3, rKv1.1, Shaker IR and rKv1.2. Furthermore, we also report for the first time a venom composition and biological activity comparison between two geographically distant populations of sea anemones.
Keywords: sea anemone; Bunodosoma caissarum; neurotoxins; voltage-gated potassium channels; two-electrode voltage-clamp; Xenopus laevis; intraspecific venom variation; Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago sea anemone; Bunodosoma caissarum; neurotoxins; voltage-gated potassium channels; two-electrode voltage-clamp; Xenopus laevis; intraspecific venom variation; Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Orts, D.J.B.; Peigneur, S.; Madio, B.; Cassoli, J.S.; Montandon, G.G.; Pimenta, A.M.C.; Bicudo, J.E.P.W.; Freitas, J.C.; Zaharenko, A.J.; Tytgat, J. Biochemical and Electrophysiological Characterization of Two Sea Anemone Type 1 Potassium Toxins from a Geographically Distant Population of Bunodosoma caissarum. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 655-679.

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