Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(3), 655-679; doi:10.3390/md11030655
Article

Biochemical and Electrophysiological Characterization of Two Sea Anemone Type 1 Potassium Toxins from a Geographically Distant Population of Bunodosoma caissarum

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Received: 17 December 2012; in revised form: 23 January 2013 / Accepted: 15 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Neurotoxins)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) venom is an important source of bioactive compounds used as tools to study the pharmacology and structure-function of voltage-gated K+ channels (KV). These neurotoxins can be divided into four different types, according to their structure and mode of action. In this work, for the first time, two toxins were purified from the venom of Bunodosoma caissarum population from Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Brazil. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis reveals that BcsTx1 and BcsTx2 are the newest members of the sea anemone type 1 potassium channel toxins. Their functional characterization was performed by means of a wide electrophysiological screening on 12 different subtypes of KV channels (KV1.1–KV1.6; KV2.1; KV3.1; KV4.2; KV4.3; hERG and Shaker IR). BcsTx1 shows a high affinity for rKv1.2 over rKv1.6, hKv1.3, Shaker IR and rKv1.1, while Bcstx2 potently blocked rKv1.6 over hKv1.3, rKv1.1, Shaker IR and rKv1.2. Furthermore, we also report for the first time a venom composition and biological activity comparison between two geographically distant populations of sea anemones.
Keywords: sea anemone; Bunodosoma caissarum; neurotoxins; voltage-gated potassium channels; two-electrode voltage-clamp; Xenopus laevis; intraspecific venom variation; Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago
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MDPI and ACS Style

Orts, D.J.B.; Peigneur, S.; Madio, B.; Cassoli, J.S.; Montandon, G.G.; Pimenta, A.M.C.; Bicudo, J.E.P.W.; Freitas, J.C.; Zaharenko, A.J.; Tytgat, J. Biochemical and Electrophysiological Characterization of Two Sea Anemone Type 1 Potassium Toxins from a Geographically Distant Population of Bunodosoma caissarum. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 655-679.

AMA Style

Orts DJB, Peigneur S, Madio B, Cassoli JS, Montandon GG, Pimenta AMC, Bicudo JEPW, Freitas JC, Zaharenko AJ, Tytgat J. Biochemical and Electrophysiological Characterization of Two Sea Anemone Type 1 Potassium Toxins from a Geographically Distant Population of Bunodosoma caissarum. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(3):655-679.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Orts, Diego J.B.; Peigneur, Steve; Madio, Bruno; Cassoli, Juliana S.; Montandon, Gabriela G.; Pimenta, Adriano M.C.; Bicudo, José E.P.W.; Freitas, José C.; Zaharenko, André J.; Tytgat, Jan. 2013. "Biochemical and Electrophysiological Characterization of Two Sea Anemone Type 1 Potassium Toxins from a Geographically Distant Population of Bunodosoma caissarum." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 3: 655-679.

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