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A Stable-Isotope Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Footprinting Approach to Analyze Exudates from Phytoplankton
School of Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
Centre for Ocean Life, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Kavalergården 6, 2920 Charlottenlund, Denmark
NERC Biomolecular Analysis Facility-Metabolomics Node (NBAF-B), University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 August 2013; in revised form: 13 September 2013 / Accepted: 1 October 2013 / Published: 29 October 2013
Abstract: Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological interactions. Despite this importance, little is known about the bioactive compounds present in phytoplankton exudates. We report a stable-isotope metabolic footprinting method to characterise exudates from aquatic autotrophs. Exudates from 13C-enriched alga were concentrated by solid phase extraction and analysed by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. We used the harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to prove the method. An algorithm was developed to automatically pinpoint just those metabolites with highly 13C-enriched isotope signatures, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP) of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way to explore the chemical nature of the solutes exuded from phytoplankton cells and will facilitate the discovery of novel dissolved bioactive compounds.
Keywords: metabolomics; stable isotope; algal exudate; dinoflagellate; correlation analysis; DIMS; exometabolome; FT-ICR; 13C; chemical ecology
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MDPI and ACS Style
Weber, R.J.M.; Selander, E.; Sommer, U.; Viant, M.R. A Stable-Isotope Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Footprinting Approach to Analyze Exudates from Phytoplankton. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 4158-4175.
Weber RJM, Selander E, Sommer U, Viant MR. A Stable-Isotope Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Footprinting Approach to Analyze Exudates from Phytoplankton. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(11):4158-4175.
Weber, Ralf J.M.; Selander, Erik; Sommer, Ulf; Viant, Mark R. 2013. "A Stable-Isotope Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Footprinting Approach to Analyze Exudates from Phytoplankton." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 11: 4158-4175.