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Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(3), 655-667; doi:10.3390/md10030655
Article

Isolation and Structural Determination of the First 8-epi-type Tetrodotoxin Analogs from the Newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and Comparison of Tetrodotoxin Analogs Profiles of This Newt and the Puffer Fish, Fugu poecilonotus

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Received: 28 February 2012; in revised form: 16 March 2012 / Accepted: 17 March 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
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Abstract: Identification of new tetrodotoxin (TTX) analogs from TTX-possessing animals might provide insight into its biosynthesis and metabolism. In this study, four new analogs, 8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 4,9-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 1-hydroxy-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, and 1-hydroxy-4,4a-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, were isolated from the newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods. These are the first 8-epi-type analogs of TTX that have been found in a natural source. Furthermore, we examined the composition of the TTX analogs in this newt and in the ovary of the puffer fish, Fugu poecilonotus, using LC/MS. The results indicate that TTX and 11-deoxyTTX were present in both sources. However, 6-epiTTX and 8-epi-type analogs were detected only in the newt, while 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX was a specific and major analog in the puffer fish. Such considerable differences among analog compositions might reflect differences in the biosynthesis or metabolism of TTX between these animals.
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; 8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxytetrodotoxin; puffer fish; newt; LC/MS tetrodotoxin; 8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxytetrodotoxin; puffer fish; newt; LC/MS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kudo, Y.; Yasumoto, T.; Konoki, K.; Cho, Y.; Yotsu-Yamashita, M. Isolation and Structural Determination of the First 8-epi-type Tetrodotoxin Analogs from the Newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and Comparison of Tetrodotoxin Analogs Profiles of This Newt and the Puffer Fish, Fugu poecilonotus . Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 655-667.

AMA Style

Kudo Y, Yasumoto T, Konoki K, Cho Y, Yotsu-Yamashita M. Isolation and Structural Determination of the First 8-epi-type Tetrodotoxin Analogs from the Newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and Comparison of Tetrodotoxin Analogs Profiles of This Newt and the Puffer Fish, Fugu poecilonotus . Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(3):655-667.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kudo, Yuta; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Konoki, Keiichi; Cho, Yuko; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari. 2012. "Isolation and Structural Determination of the First 8-epi-type Tetrodotoxin Analogs from the Newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and Comparison of Tetrodotoxin Analogs Profiles of This Newt and the Puffer Fish, Fugu poecilonotus ." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 3: 655-667.


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