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Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(3), 559-582; doi:10.3390/md10030559
Article

Activation of the Dormant Secondary Metabolite Production by Introducing Gentamicin-Resistance in a Marine-Derived Penicillium purpurogenum G59

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Received: 22 November 2011; in revised form: 13 February 2012 / Accepted: 21 February 2012 / Published: 2 March 2012
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Abstract: A new approach to activate silent gene clusters for dormant secondary metabolite production has been developed by introducing gentamicin-resistance to an originally inactive, marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium purpurogenum G59. Upon treatment of the G59 spores with a high concentration of gentamicin in aqueous DMSO, a total of 181 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. In contrast to the strain G59, the EtOAc extracts of nine mutant cultures showed inhibitory effects on K562 cells, indicating that the nine mutants had acquired capability to produce antitumor metabolites. This was evidenced by TLC and HPLC analysis of EtOAc extracts of G59 and the nine mutants. Further isolation and characterization demonstrated that four antitumor secondary metabolites, janthinone (1), fructigenine A (2), aspterric acid methyl ester (3) and citrinin (4), were newly produced by mutant 5-1-4 compared to the parent strain G59, and which were also not found in the secondary metabolites of other Penicillium purpurogenum strains. However, Compounds 14 inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells with inhibition rates of 34.6% (1), 60.8% (2), 31.7% (3) and 67.1% (4) at 100 μg/mL, respectively. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of a simple, yet practical approach to activate the production of dormant fungal secondary metabolites by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics, which could be applied to the studies for eliciting dormant metabolic potential of fungi to obtain cryptic secondary metabolites.
Keywords: Penicillium purpurogenum G59; marine-derived fungus; gentamicin resistance; DMSO; antitumor activity; secondary metabolite production Penicillium purpurogenum G59; marine-derived fungus; gentamicin resistance; DMSO; antitumor activity; secondary metabolite production
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chai, Y.-J.; Cui, C.-B.; Li, C.-W.; Wu, C.-J.; Tian, C.-K.; Hua, W. Activation of the Dormant Secondary Metabolite Production by Introducing Gentamicin-Resistance in a Marine-Derived Penicillium purpurogenum G59. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 559-582.

AMA Style

Chai Y-J, Cui C-B, Li C-W, Wu C-J, Tian C-K, Hua W. Activation of the Dormant Secondary Metabolite Production by Introducing Gentamicin-Resistance in a Marine-Derived Penicillium purpurogenum G59. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(3):559-582.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chai, Yun-Jing; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Li, Chang-Wei; Wu, Chang-Jing; Tian, Cong-Kui; Hua, Wei. 2012. "Activation of the Dormant Secondary Metabolite Production by Introducing Gentamicin-Resistance in a Marine-Derived Penicillium purpurogenum G59." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 3: 559-582.


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