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Mar. Drugs, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2012), Pages 2369-2617

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Potentiation of the Cytotoxic Activity of Copper by Polyphosphate on Biofilm-Producing Bacteria: A Bioinspired Approach
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2369-2387; doi:10.3390/md10112369
Received: 10 September 2012 / Revised: 9 October 2012 / Accepted: 12 October 2012 / Published: 25 October 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adhesion and accumulation of organic molecules represent an ecologically and economically massive problem. Adhesion of organic molecules is followed by microorganisms, unicellular organisms and plants together with their secreted soluble and structure-associated byproducts, which damage unprotected surfaces of submerged marine structures, including [...] Read more.
Adhesion and accumulation of organic molecules represent an ecologically and economically massive problem. Adhesion of organic molecules is followed by microorganisms, unicellular organisms and plants together with their secreted soluble and structure-associated byproducts, which damage unprotected surfaces of submerged marine structures, including ship hulls and heat exchangers of power plants. This is termed biofouling. The search for less toxic anti-biofilm strategies has intensified since the ban of efficient and cost-effective anti-fouling paints, enriched with the organotin compound tributyltin, not least because of our finding of the ubiquitous toxic/pro-apoptotic effects displayed by this compound [1]. Our proposed bio-inspired approach for controlling, suppressing and interfluencing the dynamic biofouling complex uses copper as one component in an alternative anti-fouling system. In order to avoid and overcome the potential resistance against copper acquired by microorganisms we are using the biopolymer polyphosphate (polyP) as a further component. Prior to being functionally active, polyP has to be hydrolyzed to ortho-phosphate which in turn can bind to copper and export the toxic compound out of the cell. It is shown here that inhibition of the hydrolysis of polyP by the bisphosphonate DMDP strongly increases the toxic effect of copper towards the biofilm-producing Streptococcus mutans in a synergistic manner. This bisphosphonate not only increases the copper-caused inhibition of cell growth but also of biofilm production by the bacteria. The defensin-related ASABF, a marine toxin produced by the sponge Suberites domuncula, caused only an additive inhibitory effect in combination with copper. We conclude that the new strategy, described here, has a superior anti-biofilm potential and can be considered as a novel principle for developing bio-inspired antifouling compounds, or cocktails of different compounds, in the future. Full article
Open AccessArticle New Capoamycin-Type Antibiotics and Polyene Acids from Marine Streptomyces fradiae PTZ0025
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2388-2402; doi:10.3390/md10112388
Received: 4 September 2012 / Revised: 8 October 2012 / Accepted: 12 October 2012 / Published: 29 October 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (885 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Capoamycin-type antibiotics (25) and polyene acids (6, 7) were isolated from marine Streptomyces fradiae strain PTZ0025. Their structures were established by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high resolution electron spray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS) [...] Read more.
Capoamycin-type antibiotics (25) and polyene acids (6, 7) were isolated from marine Streptomyces fradiae strain PTZ0025. Their structures were established by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high resolution electron spray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS) analyses and chemical degradation. Compounds 3, 4, 6, 7 were found to be new and named as fradimycins A (3) and B (4), and fradic acids A (6) and B (7). Compounds 35 showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.0 to 6.0 μg/mL. Interestingly, Compounds 35 also significantly inhibited cell growth of colon cancer and glioma with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 to 6.46 μM. Fradimycin B (4), the most active compound, was further determined to arrest cell cycle and induce apoptosis in tumor cells. The results indicated that fradimycin B (4) arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis and necrosis in colon cancer and glioma cells. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the marine natural products 35, particularly fradimycin B (4), possessed potent antimicrobial and antitumor activities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Ferrofluid Stabilized with Biocompatible Chitosan and Dextran Sulfate Hybrid Biopolymer as a Potential Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) T2 Contrast Agent
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2403-2414; doi:10.3390/md10112403
Received: 21 September 2012 / Revised: 15 October 2012 / Accepted: 15 October 2012 / Published: 29 October 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitosan is the deacetylated form of chitin and used in numerous applications. Because it is a good dispersant for metal and/or oxide nanoparticle synthesis, chitosan and its derivatives have been utilized as coating agents for magnetic nanoparticles synthesis, including superparamagnetic iron oxide [...] Read more.
Chitosan is the deacetylated form of chitin and used in numerous applications. Because it is a good dispersant for metal and/or oxide nanoparticle synthesis, chitosan and its derivatives have been utilized as coating agents for magnetic nanoparticles synthesis, including superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Herein, we demonstrate the water-soluble SPIONs encapsulated with a hybrid polymer composed of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) from chitosan, the positively charged polymer, and dextran sulfate, the negatively charged polymer. The as-prepared hybrid ferrofluid, in which iron chloride salts (Fe3+ and Fe2+) were directly coprecipitated inside the hybrid polymeric matrices, was physic-chemically characterized. Its features include the z-average diameter of 114.3 nm, polydispersity index of 0.174, zeta potential of −41.5 mV and iron concentration of 8.44 mg Fe/mL. Moreover, based on the polymer chain persistence lengths, the anionic surface of the nanoparticles as well as the high R2/R1 ratio of 13.5, we depict the morphology of SPIONs as a cluster because chitosan chains are chemisorbed onto the anionic magnetite surfaces by tangling of the dextran sulfate. Finally, the cellular uptake and biocompatibility assays indicate that the hybrid polymer encapsulating the SPIONs exhibited great potential as a magnetic resonance imaging T2 contrast agent for cell tracking. Full article
Open AccessArticle Leucettamols, Bifunctionalized Marine Sphingoids, Act as Modulators of TRPA1 and TRPM8 Channels
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2435-2447; doi:10.3390/md10112435
Received: 30 August 2012 / Revised: 15 October 2012 / Accepted: 18 October 2012 / Published: 2 November 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (561 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leucettamols, bifunctionalized sphingoid-like compounds obtained from a marine sponge Leucetta sp., act as non-electrophilic activators of the TRPA1 channel and potent inhibitors of the icilin-mediated activation of the TRPM8 channel, while they are inactive on CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 [...] Read more.
Leucettamols, bifunctionalized sphingoid-like compounds obtained from a marine sponge Leucetta sp., act as non-electrophilic activators of the TRPA1 channel and potent inhibitors of the icilin-mediated activation of the TRPM8 channel, while they are inactive on CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptors. Leucettamols represent the first compounds of marine origin to target TRPA1 and the first class of natural products to inhibit TRPM8 channels. The preparation of a small series of semi-synthetic derivatives revealed interesting details on the structure-activity relationships within this new chemotype of simple acyclic TRP modulators. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preliminary Structure-Activity Relationship on Theonellasterol, a New Chemotype of FXR Antagonist, from the Marine Sponge Theonella swinhoei
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2448-2466; doi:10.3390/md10112448
Received: 31 July 2012 / Revised: 28 August 2012 / Accepted: 24 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1061 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using theonellasterol as a novel FXR antagonist hit, we prepared a series of semi-synthetic derivatives in order to gain insight into the structural requirements for exhibiting antagonistic activity. These derivatives are characterized by modification at the exocyclic carbon-carbon double bond at C-4 [...] Read more.
Using theonellasterol as a novel FXR antagonist hit, we prepared a series of semi-synthetic derivatives in order to gain insight into the structural requirements for exhibiting antagonistic activity. These derivatives are characterized by modification at the exocyclic carbon-carbon double bond at C-4 and at the hydroxyl group at C-3 and were prepared from theonellasterol using simple reactions. Pharmacological investigation showed that the introduction of a hydroxyl group at C-4 as well as the oxidation at C-3 with or without concomitant modification at the exomethylene functionality preserve the ability of theonellasterol to inhibit FXR transactivation caused by CDCA. Docking analysis showed that the placement of these molecules in the FXR-LBD is well stabilized when on ring A functional groups, able to form hydrogen bonds and π interactions, are present. Full article
Open AccessArticle Isolation and Structure Elucidation of GM4-Type Gangliosides from the Okinawan Starfish Protoreaster nodosus
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2467-2480; doi:10.3390/md10112467
Received: 8 October 2012 / Revised: 26 October 2012 / Accepted: 30 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1027 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three new ganglioside molecular species, termed PNG-1, PNG-2A, and PNG-2B were isolated from pyloric caeca of the starfish Protoreaster nodosus. Their structures were elucidated using a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods, and characterized as 1-O-[8-O-methyl-N [...] Read more.
Three new ganglioside molecular species, termed PNG-1, PNG-2A, and PNG-2B were isolated from pyloric caeca of the starfish Protoreaster nodosus. Their structures were elucidated using a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods, and characterized as 1-O-[8-O-methyl-N-acetyl-α-neuraminosyl-(2→3)-β-galactopyranosyl]-ceramide for PNG-1, 1-O-[β-galactofuranosyl-(1→3)-α-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-8-O-methyl-N-acetyl-α-neuraminosyl-(2→3)-β-galactopyranosyl]-ceramide for PNG-2A, and 1-O-[β-galacto furanosyl-(1→3)-α-galactopyranosyl-(1→9)-N-acetyl-α-neuraminosyl-(2→3)-β-galactopyr anosyl]-ceramide for PNG-2B. PNG-2A and PNG-2B represent the first GM4 elongation products in nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates)
Open AccessArticle Cultivable Alginate Lyase-Excreting Bacteria Associated with the Arctic Brown Alga Laminaria
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2481-2491; doi:10.3390/md10112481
Received: 15 August 2012 / Revised: 24 September 2012 / Accepted: 26 October 2012 / Published: 6 November 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Although some alginate lyases have been isolated from marine bacteria, alginate lyases-excreting bacteria from the Arctic alga have not yet been investigated. Here, the diversity of the bacteria associated with the brown alga Laminaria from the Arctic Ocean was investigated for the [...] Read more.
Although some alginate lyases have been isolated from marine bacteria, alginate lyases-excreting bacteria from the Arctic alga have not yet been investigated. Here, the diversity of the bacteria associated with the brown alga Laminaria from the Arctic Ocean was investigated for the first time. Sixty five strains belonging to nine genera were recovered from six Laminaria samples, in which Psychrobacter (33/65), Psychromonas (10/65) and Polaribacter (8/65) were the predominant groups. Moreover, 21 alginate lyase-excreting strains were further screened from these Laminaria-associated bacteria. These alginate lyase-excreting strains belong to five genera. Psychromonas (8/21), Psedoalteromonas (6/21) and Polaribacter (4/21) are the predominant genera, and Psychrobacter, Winogradskyella, Psychromonas and Polaribacter were first found to produce alginate lyases. The optimal temperatures for the growth and algiante lyase production of many strains were as low as 10–20 °C, indicating that they are psychrophilic bacteria. The alginate lyases produced by 11 strains showed the highest activity at 20–30 °C, indicating that these enzymes are cold-adapted enzymes. Some strians showed high levels of extracellular alginate lyase activity around 200 U/mL. These results suggest that these algiante lyase-excreting bacteria from the Arctic alga are good materials for studying bacterial cold-adapted alginate lyases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Subereamolline A as a Potent Breast Cancer Migration, Invasion and Proliferation Inhibitor and Bioactive Dibrominated Alkaloids from the Red Sea Sponge Pseudoceratina arabica
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2492-2508; doi:10.3390/md10112492
Received: 17 September 2012 / Revised: 18 October 2012 / Accepted: 19 October 2012 / Published: 8 November 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (11250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new collection of several Red Sea sponges was investigated for the discovery of potential breast cancer migration inhibitors. Extracts of the Verongid sponges Pseudoceratina arabica and Suberea mollis were selected. Bioassay-directed fractionation of both sponges, using the wound-healing assay, resulted into [...] Read more.
A new collection of several Red Sea sponges was investigated for the discovery of potential breast cancer migration inhibitors. Extracts of the Verongid sponges Pseudoceratina arabica and Suberea mollis were selected. Bioassay-directed fractionation of both sponges, using the wound-healing assay, resulted into the isolation of several new and known brominated alkaloids. Active fractions of the sponge Pseudoceratina arabica afforded five new alkaloids, ceratinines A–E (26), together with the known alkaloids moloka’iamine (1), hydroxymoloka’iamine (7) and moloka’iakitamide (8). The active fraction of the sponge Suberea mollis afforded the three known alkaloids subereamolline A (9), aerothionin (10) and homoaerothionin (11). Ceratinine B (3) possesses an unprecedented 5,7-dibrominated dihydroindole moiety with an epoxy ring on the side chain of a fully substituted aromatic moiety. Ceratinines D (5) and E (6) possess a terminal formamide moiety at the ethylamine side chain. Subereamolline A (9) potently inhibited the migration and invasion of the highly metastatic human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 at the nanomolar doses. Subereamolline A and related brominated alkaloids are novel scaffolds appropriate for further future use for the control of metastatic breast cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Further Investigation of the Mediterranean Sponge Axinella polypoides: Isolation of a New Cyclonucleoside and a New Betaine
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2509-2518; doi:10.3390/md10112509
Received: 12 September 2012 / Revised: 26 October 2012 / Accepted: 30 October 2012 / Published: 9 November 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An exhaustive exploration into the metabolic content of the Mediterranean sponge Axinella-polypoides resulted in the isolation of the new betaine 5 and the new cyclonucleoside 8. The structures of the new metabolites were elucidated by spectroscopic methods assisted by [...] Read more.
An exhaustive exploration into the metabolic content of the Mediterranean sponge Axinella-polypoides resulted in the isolation of the new betaine 5 and the new cyclonucleoside 8. The structures of the new metabolites were elucidated by spectroscopic methods assisted by computational methods. The analysis also provided evidence that the sponge does not elaborate pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids (PIAs) but, interestingly, it was shown to contain two already known cyclodipeptides, compounds 9 (verpacamide A) and 10. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Secondary Metabolites)
Open AccessArticle Paralytic Toxins Accumulation and Tissue Expression of α-Amylase and Lipase Genes in the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Fed with the Neurotoxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2519-2534; doi:10.3390/md10112519
Received: 20 September 2012 / Revised: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 26 October 2012 / Published: 12 November 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was experimentally exposed to the neurotoxic Alexandrium catenella and a non-producer of PSTs, Alexandrium tamarense (control algae), at concentrations corresponding to those observed during the blooming period. At fixed time intervals, from 0 to 48 h, we [...] Read more.
The pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was experimentally exposed to the neurotoxic Alexandrium catenella and a non-producer of PSTs, Alexandrium tamarense (control algae), at concentrations corresponding to those observed during the blooming period. At fixed time intervals, from 0 to 48 h, we determined the clearance rate, the total filtered cells, the composition of the fecal ribbons, the profile of the PSP toxins and the variation of the expression of two α-amylase and triacylglecerol lipase precursor (TLP) genes through semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed a significant decrease of the clearance rate of C. gigas fed with both Alexandrium species. However, from 29 to 48 h, the clearance rate and cell filtration activity increased only in oysters fed with A. tamarense. The toxin concentrations in the digestive gland rose above the sanitary threshold in less than 48 h of exposure and GTX6, a compound absent in A. catenella cells, accumulated. The α-amylase B gene expression level increased significantly in the time interval from 6 to 48 h in the digestive gland of oysters fed with A. tamarense, whereas the TLP gene transcript was significantly up-regulated in the digestive gland of oysters fed with the neurotoxic A. catenella. All together, these results suggest that the digestion capacity could be affected by PSP toxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Neurotoxins)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Fucoidan Extracted from Mozuku on Experimental Cartilaginous Tissue Injury
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2560-2570; doi:10.3390/md10112560
Received: 20 August 2012 / Revised: 25 October 2012 / Accepted: 6 November 2012 / Published: 13 November 2012
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Abstract
We investigated the effect of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, on acceleration of healing of experimental cartilage injury in a rabbit model. An injured cartilage model was surgically created by introduction of three holes, one in the articular cartilage of the medial trochlea [...] Read more.
We investigated the effect of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, on acceleration of healing of experimental cartilage injury in a rabbit model. An injured cartilage model was surgically created by introduction of three holes, one in the articular cartilage of the medial trochlea and two in the trochlear sulcus of the distal femur. Rabbits in three experimental groups (F groups) were orally administered fucoidan of seven different molecular weights (8, 50, 146, 239, 330, 400, or 1000 kD) for 3 weeks by screening. Control (C group) rabbits were provided water ad libitum. After the experimental period, macroscopic examination showed that the degree of filling in the fucoidan group was higher than that in the C group. Histologically, the holes were filled by collagen fiber and fibroblasts in the C group, and by chondroblasts and fibroblasts in the F groups. Image analysis of Alcian blue- and safranin O-stained F-group specimens showed increased production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs), respectively. Some injured holes were well repaired both macroscopically and microscopically and were filled with cartilage tissues; cartilage matrices such as PGs and GAGs were produced in groups F 50, F 146, and F 239. Thus, fucoidan administration enhanced morphologically healing of cartilage injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides)
Open AccessArticle Four New Antibacterial Xanthones from the Marine-Derived Actinomycetes Streptomyces caelestis
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2571-2583; doi:10.3390/md10112571
Received: 20 September 2012 / Revised: 8 November 2012 / Accepted: 12 November 2012 / Published: 20 November 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (648 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Four new polycyclic antibiotics, citreamicin θ A (1), citreamicin θ B (2), citreaglycon A (3), and dehydrocitreaglycon A (4), were isolated from marine-derived Streptomyces caelestis. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by [...] Read more.
Four new polycyclic antibiotics, citreamicin θ A (1), citreamicin θ B (2), citreaglycon A (3), and dehydrocitreaglycon A (4), were isolated from marine-derived Streptomyces caelestis. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectra. All four compounds displayed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtillis. Citreamicin θ A (1), citreamicin θ B (2) and citreaglycon A (3) also exhibited low MIC values of 0.25, 0.25, and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nigribactin, a Novel Siderophore from Vibrio nigripulchritudo, Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2584-2595; doi:10.3390/md10112584
Received: 20 August 2012 / Revised: 22 October 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 21 November 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (4321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen that employs a number of virulence factors as part of its pathogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to explore marine bacteria as a source of compounds that modulate virulence gene expression in S. [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen that employs a number of virulence factors as part of its pathogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to explore marine bacteria as a source of compounds that modulate virulence gene expression in S. aureus. During the global marine Galathea 3 expedition, a strain collection was established comprising bacteria that express antimicrobial activity against Vibrio anguillarum and/or Staphylococcus aureus. Within this collection we searched colony material, culture supernatants, and cell extracts for virulence modulating activity showing that 68 out of 83 marine bacteria (affiliated with the Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonas sp.) influenced expression of S. aureus hla encoding α-hemolysin toxin and/or spa encoding Protein A. The isolate that upon initial screening showed the highest degree of interference (crude ethyl acetate extract) was a Vibrio nigripulchritudo. Extraction, purification and structural elucidation revealed a novel siderophore, designated nigribactin, which induces spa transcription. The effect of nigribactin on spa expression is likely to be independent from its siderophore activity, as another potent siderophore, enterobactin, failed to influence S. aureus virulence gene expression. This study shows that marine microorganisms produce compounds with potential use in therapeutic strategies targeting virulence rather than viability of human pathogens. Full article
Open AccessArticle Induction of Apoptosis, G0/G1 Phase Arrest and Microtubule Disassembly in K562 Leukemia Cells by Mere15, a Novel Polypeptide from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2596-2607; doi:10.3390/md10112596
Received: 22 August 2012 / Revised: 25 September 2012 / Accepted: 19 October 2012 / Published: 21 November 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (25327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mere15 is a novel polypeptide from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus with cytotoxicity in solid cancer cells. In this study, we investigated its activity on human K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Mere15 inhibited the growth of K562 cells with IC50 values of 38.2 [...] Read more.
Mere15 is a novel polypeptide from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus with cytotoxicity in solid cancer cells. In this study, we investigated its activity on human K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Mere15 inhibited the growth of K562 cells with IC50 values of 38.2 μg/mL. Mere15 also caused concentration dependent induction of apoptosis, with overproduction of reactive oxygen species and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, Mere15 arrested cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase of K562 cells in a concentration dependent manner. In addition, Mere15 caused the disassembly of the microtubule cytoskeleton in K562 cells and inhibited the polymerization of tubulin in a cell free system via interaction with tubulin. We concluded that Mere15 was cytotoxic to K562 leukemia cells and the cytotoxicity was related to the apoptosis induction, cell cycle arrest and microtubule disassembly. These results implied that Merer15 was a broad spectrum anticancer polypeptide, not only cytotoxic to various solid cancer cells but also to the chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Mere15 may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of leukemia. Full article
Open AccessArticle seco-Briarellinone and Briarellin S, Two New Eunicellin-Based Diterpenoids from the Panamanian Octocoral Briareum asbestinum
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2608-2617; doi:10.3390/md10112608
Received: 20 August 2012 / Revised: 26 September 2012 / Accepted: 22 October 2012 / Published: 21 November 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new eunicellin-based diterpenes, seco-briarellinone (1) and briarellin S (2), and a known seco-asbestinin (3) have been isolated from the methanolic extract of the common octocoral Briareum asbestinum collected in Bocas del Toro, Caribbean [...] Read more.
Two new eunicellin-based diterpenes, seco-briarellinone (1) and briarellin S (2), and a known seco-asbestinin (3) have been isolated from the methanolic extract of the common octocoral Briareum asbestinum collected in Bocas del Toro, Caribbean of Panama. The structures and relative stereochemistry of the compounds were defined using extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D, 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Compounds 1 and 2 displayed anti-inflammatory properties inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolisacharide (LPS) in macrophages with an Inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of 4.7 μM and 20.3 μM, respectively. This is the first report of briarellin diterpenes containing a ketone group at C-12. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Natural Product Chemistry of Gorgonian Corals of the Family Plexauridae Distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2415-2434; doi:10.3390/md10112415
Received: 13 September 2012 / Revised: 10 October 2012 / Accepted: 16 October 2012 / Published: 1 November 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The structures, names, bioactivities and references of 105 natural products obtained from gorgonian corals belonging to the family Plexauridae with an Indo-Pacific distribution are described in this review. All compounds mentioned in this review were obtained from gorgonian corals belonging to the [...] Read more.
The structures, names, bioactivities and references of 105 natural products obtained from gorgonian corals belonging to the family Plexauridae with an Indo-Pacific distribution are described in this review. All compounds mentioned in this review were obtained from gorgonian corals belonging to the genera Astrogorgia, Bebryce, Echinomuricea, Euplexaura and Menella. Full article
Open AccessReview Distinguishing Health Benefits of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2535-2559; doi:10.3390/md10112535
Received: 24 September 2012 / Revised: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 31 October 2012 / Published: 13 November 2012
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) are recommended for management of patients with wide-ranging chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia, and depression. Increased consumption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is recommended by [...] Read more.
Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) are recommended for management of patients with wide-ranging chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia, and depression. Increased consumption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is recommended by many health authorities to prevent (up to 0.5 g/day) or treat chronic disease (1.0 g/day for coronary heart disease; 1.2–4 g/day for elevated triglyceride levels). Recommendations for dietary intake of LC n-3 PUFAs are often provided for α-linolenic acid, and for the combination of EPA and DHA. However, many studies have also reported differential effects of EPA, DHA and their metabolites in the clinic and at the laboratory bench. The aim of this article is to review studies that have identified divergent responses to EPA and DHA, and to explore reasons for these differences. In particular, we review potential contributing factors such as differential membrane incorporation, modulation of gene expression, activation of signaling pathways and metabolite formation. We suggest that there may be future opportunity to refine recommendations for intake of individual LC n-3 PUFAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)

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