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Pharmaceuticals 2016, 9(1), 9; doi:10.3390/ph9010009

Cognitive Dysfunction in Major Depressive Disorder. A Translational Review in Animal Models of the Disease

1
Université Paris-Saclay, University Paris-Sud, Faculté de Pharmacie, CESP, INSERM UMRS1178, Chatenay-Malabry 92296, France
2
Laboratoire de “Physiopathologie des maladies Psychiatriques”, Centre de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences U894, INSERM, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris 75014, France
3
Service de Psychiatrie, Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Faculté de Médecine Paris Descartes, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris 75014, France
4
Human Histopathology and Animal Models, Infection and Epidemiology Department, Institut Pasteur, Paris 75015, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guy Griebel
Received: 4 December 2015 / Revised: 28 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [578 KB, uploaded 17 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. In addition to the well-defined depressive symptoms, patients suffering from MDD consistently complain about cognitive disturbances, significantly exacerbating the burden of this illness. Among cognitive symptoms, impairments in attention, working memory, learning and memory or executive functions are often reported. However, available data about the heterogeneity of MDD patients and magnitude of cognitive symptoms through the different phases of MDD remain difficult to summarize. Thus, the first part of this review briefly overviewed clinical studies, focusing on the cognitive dysfunctions depending on the MDD type. As animal models are essential translational tools for underpinning the mechanisms of cognitive deficits in MDD, the second part of this review synthetized preclinical studies observing cognitive deficits in different rodent models of anxiety/depression. For each cognitive domain, we determined whether deficits could be shared across models. Particularly, we established whether specific stress-related procedures or unspecific criteria (such as species, sex or age) could segregate common cognitive alteration across models. Finally, the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents in cognitive dysfunctions during MDD state was also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: major depressive disorder; cognitive dysfunctions; animal models of anxiety/depression; neurogenesis major depressive disorder; cognitive dysfunctions; animal models of anxiety/depression; neurogenesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Darcet, F.; Gardier, A.M.; Gaillard, R.; David, D.J.; Guilloux, J.-P. Cognitive Dysfunction in Major Depressive Disorder. A Translational Review in Animal Models of the Disease. Pharmaceuticals 2016, 9, 9.

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