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Pharmaceuticals 2015, 8(4), 865-883; doi:10.3390/ph8040865

Hormesis: Decoding Two Sides of the Same Coin

1
School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu 613401, India
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz 55128, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jean Jacques Vanden Eynde
Received: 13 November 2015 / Revised: 9 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Choices of the Journal)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1063 KB, uploaded 16 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

In the paradigm of drug administration, determining the correct dosage of a therapeutic is often a challenge. Several drugs have been noted to demonstrate contradictory effects per se at high and low doses. This duality in function of a drug at different concentrations is known as hormesis. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study these biphasic functions in order to understand the mechanistic basis of their effects. In this article, we focus on different molecules and pathways associated with diseases that possess a duality in their function and thus prove to be the seat of hormesis. In particular, we have highlighted the pathways and factors involved in the progression of cancer and how the biphasic behavior of the molecules involved can alter the manifestations of cancer. Because of the pragmatic role that it exhibits, the imminent need is to draw attention to the concept of hormesis. Herein, we also discuss different stressors that trigger hormesis and how stress-mediated responses increase the overall adaptive response of an individual to stress stimulus. We talk about common pathways through which cancer progresses (such as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Nrf2-Keap1), sirtuin-forkhead box O (SIRT-FOXO) and others), analyzing how diverse molecules associated with these pathways conform to hormesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: hormesis; biphasic; cancer; pathways; stressor; mimetics hormesis; biphasic; cancer; pathways; stressor; mimetics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bhakta-Guha, D.; Efferth, T. Hormesis: Decoding Two Sides of the Same Coin. Pharmaceuticals 2015, 8, 865-883.

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