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Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(11), 1381-1406; doi:10.3390/ph6111381
Article

Longitudinal Assessment of Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Organisms Collected from Italy as Part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial between 2004 and 2011

1,*  and 2
1 Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, University of Catania, Via Androne 81, Catania 95124, Italy 2 Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 July 2013 / Revised: 22 October 2013 / Accepted: 30 October 2013 / Published: 7 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Agents)
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Abstract

The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) was initiated in 2004 to longitudinally monitor the activity of the broad-spectrum glycylcycline antimicrobial tigecycline, and a suite of comparator agents, against an array of clinically important bacterial pathogens worldwide. In this report, we examine the activity of tigecycline and comparators against a collection of 13,245 clinical isolates, both Gram-positive (n = 4,078 and Gram-negative (n = 9,167), collected from 27 centres in Italy between 2004 and 2011. Susceptibility was established according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Tigecycline and linezolid exhibited very good activity against Gram-positive pathogens, with MIC90s ranging from 0.06 to 0.25 mg/L and 1–4 mg/L, respectively; vancomycin and the carbapenems also showed good activity against select Gram-positive pathogens. Tigecycline was the most active agent against Gram-negative pathogens (except P. aeruginosa), with MIC90s ranging from 0.25–2 mg/L (16 mg/L for P. aeruginosa). Amikacin and the carbapenems also possessed good activity against many Gram-negative pathogens here. ESBL-positive E. coli increased in prevalence from 2004 to 2011, while ESBL-positive Klebsiella spp., vancomycin-resistant enterococci and MRSA decreased in prevalence. Linezolid, tigecycline and vancomycin susceptibility were very stable over the course of this study, while susceptibility to ampicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftriaxone and levofloxacin varied over time according to pathogen; minocycline and cefepime susceptibility among several pathogens decreased during this study.
Keywords: tigecycline; Italy; surveillance; antimicrobial resistance tigecycline; Italy; surveillance; antimicrobial resistance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Stefani, S.; Dowzicky, M.J. Longitudinal Assessment of Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Organisms Collected from Italy as Part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial between 2004 and 2011. Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6, 1381-1406.

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