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Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(3), 551-566; doi:10.3390/ph4030551

Carvedilol Attenuates Inflammatory-Mediated Cardiotoxicity in Daunorubicin-Induced Rats

1,2,†, 1,3,†, 1,* , 1, 1, 1, 4, 1, 1 and 5
1 Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Niigata City 956-8603, Japan 2 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, State Islamic University, South Jakarta 15412, Indonesia 3 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia 4 Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata 951-8510, Japan 5 First Department of Internal Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata 951-8510, Japan These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2011 / Revised: 23 February 2011 / Accepted: 10 March 2011 / Published: 17 March 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Betablockers)
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Cardiotoxicity, which results from intense cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation, is the main limiting factor of the anthracyclines. Carvedilol, a beta blocker that is used as a multifunctional neurohormonal antagonist, has been shown to act not only as an anti-oxidant, but also as an anti-inflammatory drug. This study was designed to evaluate whether carvedilol exerts a protective role against inflammation-mediated cardiotoxicity in the daunorubicin (DNR)-induced rats. Carvedilol was administered orally to the rats every day for 6 weeks at a cumulative dose of 9 mg/kg body weight DNR. DNR significantly induced cardiac damage and worsened cardiac function as well as increased cardiac mast cell density, elevating the myocardial protein and mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1, nuclear factor kappa-B, cyclooxygenase-2, monocyte chemotactic protein -1 and interleukin -6 compared to that in the control group. Cotreatment with carvedilol significantly attenuated the myocardial protein and mRNA expression levels of these inflammatory markers, decreased cardiac mast cell density, improved histological cardiac damage and cardiac functions. In conclusion, inflammation plays a significant role in DNR-induced cardiotoxicity, and carvedilol contributes to cardioprotection against inflammation-mediated cardiotoxicity in DNR-induced rats through its anti-inflammatory mechanism.
Keywords: daunorubicin; carvedilol; inflammation; fibrosis daunorubicin; carvedilol; inflammation; fibrosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Sari, F.R.; Arozal, W.; Watanabe, K.; Harima, M.; Veeravedu, P.T.; Thandavarayan, R.A.; Suzuki, K.; Arumugam, S.; Soetikno, V.; Kodama, M. Carvedilol Attenuates Inflammatory-Mediated Cardiotoxicity in Daunorubicin-Induced Rats. Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4, 551-566.

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