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Proteolytically Derived Endogenous Angioinhibitors Originating from the Extracellular Matrix
Cell Signaling, Retinal and Tumor Angiogenesis Laboratory, Department of Genetics, Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE 68131, USA
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 October 2011; in revised form: 24 November 2011 / Accepted: 25 November 2011 / Published: 2 December 2011
Abstract: Angiogenesis, a neovascularization process induced from the existing parent blood vessels, is a prerequisite for many physiological and pathological conditions. Under physiological conditions it is regulated by a balance between endogenous angioinhibitors and angioactivators, and an imbalance between them would lead to pathological conditions such as cancer, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, cardiovascular diseases, etc. Several proteolytically generated endogenous molecules have been identified which exhibit angioinhibition and/or antitumor activities. These angioinhibitors interact with endothelial and tumor cells by binding to distinct integrins and initiate many of their intracellular signaling mechanisms regulating the cell survival and or apoptotic pathways. The present review will focus on the extracellular matrix derived angioinhibitors, and their mechanisms of actions that point to the clinical significance and therapeutic implications.
Keywords: extracelluar matrix; endogenous angioinhibitors; tumor angiogenesis; arresten; canstatin; tumstatin; endostatin; endorepellin; angiostatin; prothrombin kringle domain 2; thrombospondin; vasohibin; PEX domain; integrin signaling
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Boosani, C.S.; Sudhakar, Y.A. Proteolytically Derived Endogenous Angioinhibitors Originating from the Extracellular Matrix. Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4, 1551-1577.
Boosani CS, Sudhakar YA. Proteolytically Derived Endogenous Angioinhibitors Originating from the Extracellular Matrix. Pharmaceuticals. 2011; 4(12):1551-1577.
Boosani, Chandra Shekhar; Sudhakar, Yakkanti A. 2011. "Proteolytically Derived Endogenous Angioinhibitors Originating from the Extracellular Matrix." Pharmaceuticals 4, no. 12: 1551-1577.