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Pharmaceuticals, Volume 4, Issue 12 (December 2011), Pages 1518-1606

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Activity of Ingavirin (6-[2-(1H-Imidazol-4-yl)ethylamino]-5-oxo-hexanoic Acid) Against Human Respiratory Viruses in in Vivo Experiments
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(12), 1518-1534; doi:10.3390/ph4121518
Received: 31 August 2011 / Revised: 16 November 2011 / Accepted: 18 November 2011 / Published: 25 November 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3893 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Respiratory viral infections constitute the most frequent reason for medical consultations in the World. They can be associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from self-limited upper respiratory tract infections to more devastating conditions such as pneumonia. In particular, in serious
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Respiratory viral infections constitute the most frequent reason for medical consultations in the World. They can be associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from self-limited upper respiratory tract infections to more devastating conditions such as pneumonia. In particular, in serious cases influenza A leads to pneumonia, which is particularly fatal in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases, obesity, young children and the elderly. In the present study, we show a protective effect of the low-molecular weight compound Ingavirin (6-[2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethylamino]-5-oxohexanoic acid) against influenza A (H1N1) virus, human parainfluenza virus and human adenovirus infections in animals. Mortality, weight loss, infectious titer of the virus in tissues and tissue morphology were monitored in the experimental groups of animals. The protective action of Ingavirin was observed as a reduction of infectious titer of the virus in the lung tissue, prolongation of the life of the infected animals, normalization of weight dynamics throughout the course of the disease, lowering of mortality of treated animals compared to a placebo control and normalization of tissue structure. In case of influenza virus infection, the protective activity of Ingavirin was similar to that of the reference compound Tamiflu. Based on the results obtained, Ingavirin should be considered as an important part of anti-viral prophylaxis and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals)
Open AccessArticle Essential Oils from Different Plant Parts of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. (Myrtaceae) as a Source of 1,8-Cineole and Their Bioactivities
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(12), 1535-1550; doi:10.3390/ph4121535
Received: 3 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 25 November 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eucalyptus cinerea, known as silver dollar tree, has few descriptions in traditional medicine. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits, collected seasonally, were determined by GC/MS and disk diffusion/MIC, respectively. 1,8-Cineole was the main compound,
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Eucalyptus cinerea, known as silver dollar tree, has few descriptions in traditional medicine. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits, collected seasonally, were determined by GC/MS and disk diffusion/MIC, respectively. 1,8-Cineole was the main compound, particularly in fresh leaves—Spring (74.98%), dried leaves—Spring (85.32%), flowers—Winter (78.76%) and fruits—Winter (80.97%). Other compounds were found in the aerial parts in all seasons: α-pinene (2.41% to 10.13%), limonene (1.46% to 4.43%), α-terpineol (1.73% to 11.72%), and α-terpinyl acetate (3.04% to 20.44%). The essential oils showed antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeasts, with the best results being found for the dried autumn and winter leaves oils (MIC < 0.39 mg/mL) against Streptococcus pyogenes. For the other tested microorganisms the following MIC results were found: Staphylococcus aureus—Dried leaves oil from summer (0.78 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oil from winter (1.56 mg/mL) and Candida albicans—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oils from winter and spring (0.78 mg/mL). Full article
Open AccessArticle Improved Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as Therapeutics for the Neurodegenerative Disease Friedreich’s Ataxia: A New Synthetic Route
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(12), 1578-1590; doi:10.3390/ph4121578
Received: 18 October 2011 / Revised: 30 November 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published: 14 December 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is caused by transcriptional repression of the nuclear FXN gene encoding the essential mitochondrial protein frataxin. Based on the hypothesis that the acetylation state of the histone proteins is responsible for gene silencing in FRDA, previous work in our lab
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Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is caused by transcriptional repression of the nuclear FXN gene encoding the essential mitochondrial protein frataxin. Based on the hypothesis that the acetylation state of the histone proteins is responsible for gene silencing in FRDA, previous work in our lab identified a first generation of HDAC inhibitors (pimelic o-aminobenzamides), which increase FXN mRNA in lymphocytes from FRDA patients. Importantly, these compounds also function in a FRDA mouse model to increase FXN mRNA levels in the brain and heart. While the first generation of HDAC inhibitors hold promise as potential therapeutics for FRDA, they have two potential problems: less than optimal brain penetration and metabolic instability in acidic conditions. Extensive optimization focusing on modifying the left benzene ring, linker and the right benzene ring lead to a novel class of HDAC inhibitors that have optimized pharmacological properties (increased brain penetration and acid stability) compared to the previous HDAC inhibitors. This article will describe the chemical synthesis and pharmacological properties of these new HDAC inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HDAC Inhibitors)
Open AccessArticle Targeted CRM197-PEG-PEI/siRNA Complexes for Therapeutic RNAi in Glioblastoma
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(12), 1591-1606; doi:10.3390/ph4121591
Received: 16 September 2011 / Revised: 8 December 2011 / Accepted: 9 December 2011 / Published: 16 December 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
RNA interference (RNAi) allows the specific knockdown of tumor relevant genes. To induce RNAi, the delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is of crucial importance. This is particularly challenging for their therapeutic applications in vivo. Low molecular weight branched polyethylenimine (PEI) is
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RNA interference (RNAi) allows the specific knockdown of tumor relevant genes. To induce RNAi, the delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is of crucial importance. This is particularly challenging for their therapeutic applications in vivo. Low molecular weight branched polyethylenimine (PEI) is safe and efficient for nucleic acid delivery including small RNA molecules, based on its ability to electrostatically complex siRNA molecules, thereby protecting them from nuclease degradation. The nanoscale PEI/siRNA complexes are endocytosed by cells prior to intracellular complex release from the lysosome and cytoplasmic release of the siRNAs from the complexes. Chemical modification and ligand decoration of the complexes aim at introducing target tissue specificity and further increased efficacy of PEI-mediated siRNA delivery. CRM197 is a mutated, non-toxic diphtheria toxin (DT) that binds to the membrane-bound precursor of HB-EGF-like growth factor/diphtheria toxin receptor highly expressed in glioblastoma cells. Likewise, the growth factor pleiotrophin (PTN/HB-GAM/HARP) is overexpressed in glioblastoma and is rate limiting for tumor growth, thus representing an attractive target gene for therapeutic knockdown approaches. PEGylation of PEI was performed to reduce the surface charge, and by CRM197 coupling we prepared a modified PEI for siRNA delivery into glioblastoma cells. The novel PEI conjugates were analyzed for their complexation efficiency and optimal mixing ratios, and complexes were physicochemically characterized regarding stability, size and zeta potential. The biological activity of the complexes was confirmed in cell culture by reporter gene knockdown. For the therapeutic treatment of subcutaneous human gliobastoma xenografts in athymic nude mice, we systemically injected the modified PEI/siRNA complexes targeting PTN. Antitumor effects based on PTN knockdown demonstrated the advantage of tumor-targeted CRM197-PEG-PEI/siRNA over untargeted PEG-PEI polyplexes. Thus, we establish targeted CRM197-PEG-PEI-based complexes for siRNA delivery in vivo, and show therapeutic effects of CRM197-PEG-PEI/siRNA-mediated knockdown of PTN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNAi-Based Therapeutics)

Review

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Open AccessReview Proteolytically Derived Endogenous Angioinhibitors Originating from the Extracellular Matrix
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(12), 1551-1577; doi:10.3390/ph4121551
Received: 14 October 2011 / Revised: 24 November 2011 / Accepted: 25 November 2011 / Published: 2 December 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (789 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Angiogenesis, a neovascularization process induced from the existing parent blood vessels, is a prerequisite for many physiological and pathological conditions. Under physiological conditions it is regulated by a balance between endogenous angioinhibitors and angioactivators, and an imbalance between them would lead to pathological
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Angiogenesis, a neovascularization process induced from the existing parent blood vessels, is a prerequisite for many physiological and pathological conditions. Under physiological conditions it is regulated by a balance between endogenous angioinhibitors and angioactivators, and an imbalance between them would lead to pathological conditions such as cancer, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, cardiovascular diseases, etc. Several proteolytically generated endogenous molecules have been identified which exhibit angioinhibition and/or antitumor activities. These angioinhibitors interact with endothelial and tumor cells by binding to distinct integrins and initiate many of their intracellular signaling mechanisms regulating the cell survival and or apoptotic pathways. The present review will focus on the extracellular matrix derived angioinhibitors, and their mechanisms of actions that point to the clinical significance and therapeutic implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Angiogenesis Inhibitors)

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