Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(8), 2495-2516; doi:10.3390/ph3082495
Review

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in the Carcinogenesis of the Gastrointestinal Tract

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Received: 20 July 2010; in revised form: 27 July 2010 / Accepted: 6 August 2010 / Published: 9 August 2010
(This article belongs to the collection Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: It is estimated that underlying infections and inflammatory responses are linked to 15–20% of all deaths from cancer worldwide. Inflammation is a physiologic process in response to tissue damage resulting from microbial pathogen infection, chemical irritation, and/or wounding. Tissues injured throughout the recruitment of inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils, generate a great amount of growth factors, cytokines, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that may cause DNA damage that in turn predisposes to the transformation from chronic inflammation to neoplasia. Cyclooxygenase (COX), playing a key role in cell homeostasis, angiogenesis and tumourigenesis, may represent the link between inflammation and cancer. Currently COX is becoming a pharmacological target for cancer prevention and treatment.It is estimated that underlying infections and inflammatory responses are linked to 15–20% of all deaths from cancer worldwide. Inflammation is a physiologic process in response to tissue damage resulting from microbial pathogen infection, chemical irritation, and/or wounding. Tissues injured throughout the recruitment of inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils, generate a great amount of growth factors, cytokines, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that may cause DNA damage that in turn predisposes to the transformation from chronic inflammation to neoplasia. Cyclooxygenase (COX), playing a key role in cell homeostasis, angiogenesis and tumourigenesis, may represent the link between inflammation and cancer. Currently COX is becoming a pharmacological target for cancer prevention and treatment.
Keywords: cyclooxygenase-2; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; esophageal cancer; gastric cancer; colorectal cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Compare, D.; Nardone, O.; Nardone, G. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in the Carcinogenesis of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 2495-2516.

AMA Style

Compare D, Nardone O, Nardone G. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in the Carcinogenesis of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Pharmaceuticals. 2010; 3(8):2495-2516.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Compare, Debora; Nardone, Olga; Nardone, Gerardo. 2010. "Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in the Carcinogenesis of the Gastrointestinal Tract." Pharmaceuticals 3, no. 8: 2495-2516.


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