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Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Brain Inflammation: Effects on Microglial Functions
Experimental Neurology Section, Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 April 2010; in revised form: 21 May 2010 / Accepted: 11 June 2010 / Published: 14 June 2010
Abstract: The term NSAID refers to structurally diverse chemical compounds that share the ability to inhibit the activity of the prostaglandin (PG) biosynthetic enzymes, the cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms 1 and 2. The suppression of PG synthesis at sites of inflammation has been regarded as primarily responsible for the beneficial properties of NSAIDs, but several COX-independent effects have been described in recent years. Epidemiological studies indicate that NSAIDs are neuroprotective, although the mechanisms underlying their beneficial effect remain largely unknown. Microglial cells play a major role in brain inflammation and are often viewed as major contributors to the neurodegeneration. Therefore, microglia represent a likely target for NSAIDs within the brain. In the present review, we focused on the direct effects of NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors on microglial functions and discuss the potential efficacy in controlling brain inflammation.
Keywords: brain; cyclooxygenase; microglia; neuroprotection; NSAIDs; PPAR- γ; transcription factors
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Ajmone-Cat, M.A.; Bernardo, A.; Greco, A.; Minghetti, L. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Brain Inflammation: Effects on Microglial Functions. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 1949-1965.
Ajmone-Cat MA, Bernardo A, Greco A, Minghetti L. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Brain Inflammation: Effects on Microglial Functions. Pharmaceuticals. 2010; 3(6):1949-1965.
Ajmone-Cat, Maria Antonietta; Bernardo, Antonietta; Greco, Anita; Minghetti, Luisa. 2010. "Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Brain Inflammation: Effects on Microglial Functions." Pharmaceuticals 3, no. 6: 1949-1965.