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Targeted Therapy of Cancer Using Photodynamic Therapy in Combination with Multi-faceted Anti-Tumor Modalities
National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Drive, 169610, Singapore
Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Biomedical Sciences Institutes, 11 Biopolis Way, #02-02 Helios, 138667, Singapore
School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, No. 18 Science Drive 4, Block S4, 117543, Singapore
These two authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 March 2010; in revised form: 28 April 2010 / Accepted: 11 May 2010 / Published: 14 May 2010
Abstract: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as one of the important therapeutic options in the management of cancer and other diseases. PDT involves a tumor-localized photosensitizer (PS), which when appropriately illuminated by visible light converts oxygen into cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), that attack key structural entities within the targeted cells, ultimately resulting in necrosis or apoptosis. Though PDT is a selective modality, it can be further enhanced by combining other targeted therapeutic strategies that include the use of synthetic peptides and nanoparticles for selective delivery of photosensitizers. Another potentially promising strategy is the application of targeted therapeutics that exploit a myriad of critical pathways involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Vascular disrupting agents that eradicate tumor vasculature during PDT and anti-angiogenic agents that targets specific molecular pathways and prevent the formation of new blood vessels are novel therapeutic approaches that have been shown to improve treatment outcome. In addition to the well-documented mechanisms of direct cell killing and damage to the tumor vasculature, PDT can also activate the body’s immune response against tumors. Numerous pre-clinical studies and clinical observations have demonstrated the immuno-stimulatory capability of PDT. Herein, we aim to integrate the most important findings with regard to the combination of PDT and other novel targeted therapy approaches, detailing its potential in cancer photomedicine.
Keywords: photodynamic therapy (PDT); targeted therapy; peptides; nanoparticles; vascular PDT; anti-angiogenesis; immune response
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Olivo, M.; Bhuvaneswari, R.; Lucky, S.S.; Dendukuri, N.; Soo-Ping Thong, P. Targeted Therapy of Cancer Using Photodynamic Therapy in Combination with Multi-faceted Anti-Tumor Modalities. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 1507-1529.
Olivo M, Bhuvaneswari R, Lucky SS, Dendukuri N, Soo-Ping Thong P. Targeted Therapy of Cancer Using Photodynamic Therapy in Combination with Multi-faceted Anti-Tumor Modalities. Pharmaceuticals. 2010; 3(5):1507-1529.
Olivo, Malini; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Lucky, Sasidharan Swarnalatha; Dendukuri, Nagamani; Soo-Ping Thong, Patricia. 2010. "Targeted Therapy of Cancer Using Photodynamic Therapy in Combination with Multi-faceted Anti-Tumor Modalities." Pharmaceuticals 3, no. 5: 1507-1529.